Yucatán Peninsula

The Yucatán Peninsula is a region of southeastern Mexico, consisting of the Mexican states of Yucatán, Campeche, and Quintana Roo.

The Yucatán was the home of the Maya civilization before it was conquered by the Spanish Conquistadors in the 16th century. Much of the population is part or all of Maya descent, and in many places the Maya language is still spoken, usually in addition to Spanish, the main language of business.

Until the mid 20th century, most of the Peninsula's trade with the rest of Mexico was by sea, and the culture, cuisine, and traditions developed different flavors from other parts of Mexico. Starting in the late 20th century the Yucatán has become more integrated into Mexico, especially such areas on the Caribbean coast as Cancún and Chetumal, where many people from other parts of the nation have moved to take advantage of the economic opportunities of development. The Mayan Riviera stretching south from Cancún has seen the most growth related to tourism.


Quintana Roo
Heavy tourist traffic is lured to the northeast of the state, notably by the infamous party city of Cancún, but also by the endless gorgeous Caribbean white sand beaches, some of the world's greatest scuba diving, beautiful cenotes, and a few excellent Mayan sites.
The Mayan capital of Mexico is home to famous Chichen Itza, but also to more beautiful cenotes, caves, pretty colonial cities, a vibrant capital in Mérida, and is well known as Mexico's safest state.
Decidedly further off the beaten path than busy Yucatán or Quintana Roo, Campeche has its own magnificent Mayan ruins, which you can explore in the quiet of your own company, as well as the touristic beach city of Ciudad del Carmen.
A state better known for hot sauce than tourism, there are nonetheless a few worthwhile stops here for a cross-country traveler, notably the immodestly named beach town of Paraíso.
At the southern end of the Peninsula, with the only Pacific coastline in this region, is Chiapas, most notable for the impressive Mayan ruins at Palenque, but also for the beautiful natural, jungle areas in the state's east.


Other destinations

Lol-Tun caves

Extensive Maya ruins are scattered all over this region, most of which are easily accessible by bus or car. Some of the more important include:


Yucatan is the place of the Chicxulub ("tshick-shoe-loob") impact, that is (according to whom you ask) partly or entirely to blame for the end of the dinosaur age 65 million years ago. While hardly anything of it can be seen today, the location of some Cenotes (see below) is a good indicator for the size of the crater as they still form a circle segment that when followed to the ocean gives you the full size of the impact crater.

a gravity anomaly image of the Chicxulub crater. the white points indicate the location of Cenotes

The Maya civilization flourished in the Yucatán Peninsula for more than a thousand years before the Yucatán was conquered by the Spanish in the 1500s. The Maya and Spanish heritage combined to create the new culture of Yucatán. Until the mid-20th century, there were no railways or highways linking the Peninsula to the rest of Mexico, so most commerce was by sea. The long term comparative isolation of the Yucatán helped make it one of the most culturally distinctive regions in Mexico.

Yucatán is famous for ancient Maya ruins such as Chichén Itzá . Contrary to the strange misconception, the Maya people never "disappeared". Most of Yucatán is still predominantly Maya. Maya culture, identity, traditions, and language are very much alive, especially outside of main cities. Referring to locals as Mexican rather than Maya, may risk offending them.

Cenotes are caves or pools of stagnant water that were formed by erosion of limestone, much like the Karst formations in southern Germany (e.g. Franconian Switzerland) or Croatia. They were one of the few reliable sources of water for the Maya during their heyday. While their exact role is still open to some debate objects and remains (both animal and human) found in some of them indicate an important religious role. While some Cenotes are closed due to their religious/cultural/archaeological significance, there are many that you can swim or dive in with or without guides.

Away from beaches and tourist hotels going around in a bathing suit or short shorts is considered improper and rude.


El Castillo at Chichen Itza

Spanish is the main language. English and possibly German and French will be understood at the more expensive resorts and tourist locations. Knowing a few phrases of basic Spanish will help away from the main tourist resorts and can often help you find better deals. Yucatecos are generally tolerant of visitors who do not speak Spanish fluently and appreciate the effort.

In much of the Yucatán some Maya is spoken. Except in a few small villages, almost everyone will have at least a working knowledge of basic Spanish.

Maya place names are usually accented on the last syllable, otherwise generally pronounced the same as in Spanish. The letter "X" in Yucatán is used for the sound in the Maya language that's the same as "Sh" in English. For example, "Uxmal" is pronounced "Oosh-MAL".

Get in

By plane

Fly in through Cancún, Cozumel, or Mérida. For the best deals, look for charter flight consolidation seats - spare capacity on flights run by package tour operators.

By bus

From the west through the Chiapas region. Buy tickets for long journeys in advance, particularly at busy times such as weekends and public or religious holidays.

Check Ticketbus for times and prices. Only rule out overnight buses for what you would miss en route.

By train

There is no remaining passenger train service in the Yucatán Peninsula. After the federal government privatized the railways, all but two long distance passenger services across the entire nation were discontinued. While there were plans to build a new (high speed) rail line and possibly also build one through Yucatan, recent economic problems (mostly due to falling oil prices) have postponed if not canceled these plans as of late 2015.

Get around

By bus

Many different class buses are available to/from all the major and many of the minor cities. Mexican first class buses are excellent value and remarkably comfortable - comparable to European train services. Many cheaper services are also available - from second class (little noticeable difference really) to very basic minibus and truck services. Safety seems to decrease with price, however - second class and below may lack seatbelts. Beware of the excessive air conditioning that seems to be a feature on most services - the bus may be many degrees colder than the outside air, and being stuck on a twelve hour journey without adequate clothing can make a journey singularly unpleasant. Travelling second class is not recommended for taller people. As second class busses hold more seats than first class ones do, there is almost no leg room. The major first class bus line is Autobuses del Oriente (ADO). Most of the smaller lines (Mayab, for example), are owned by ADO.

By combi

Combi are collective-taxis that offer both inter and intra-city services. Cheaper than a taxi and usually faster than a bus since it makes fewer stops.

By taxi

Available for hire even in small towns. For long distances however, like the caves at Lol-tun, be sure to agree on a price before boarding, or you might get ripped off.





Yucatecan food has its own culinary traditions developed from the long mix of native Maya and Spanish traditions. While some dishes can be very spicy, many others are not.

Common meats are turkey, chicken, pork, and deer. Yucatecan venison is quite good and not "gamey" tasting.

Typical dishes include:

Seafood is also very important, especially in Campeche. Pulpo (octopus), cazon (shark), camaron (shrimp) and various other tropical fish are very popular.

Contrary to the advice of many guides, the food served in all-inclusive resorts may have been prepared in far less safe conditions than that available in local establishments away from the major tourist zones. Poor refrigeration, retaining food beyond safe time limits and poor hygiene have been reported from many resorts - whereas street vendors patronised by locals have little choice but to maintain high standards, as everything is on view and their business is dependent on their reputation, not passing foreign visitors.

A good approach for regular restaurants is to note those with a lot of locals and to patronize them.


Tap water is not generally advised for drinking in Mexico, particularly for visitors. In many places (particularly backpacker-friendly resorts) water containers can be filled with drinking water for a few pesos - so a reusable container is both an environmentally and financially better option.

The water system in Mérida is unusually good for Mexico; for some visitors it is the only Mexican city where they will drink the tap water. Outside of this city the situation is different. In small towns the local water can be very bad, and bottled water is recommended.

It would be difficult for anyone visiting this area not to sample the Tequila, which should be used in moderation. For those more adventurous souls, Absinthe is legal in Mexico and also, moderation is suggested. Fresh fruit juice is very popular in The Yucatán and freshly squeezed OJ can be found in most markets. Dairy products, including cheese, should be avoided, unless you are positive they have been made with pasteurized milk.

Stay safe

Strict drug possession policy exists in Mexico. Be very careful even with "greens". Local police are hopelessly corrupt and love to catch unwary tourists with small quantities of marijuana. Threatening long prison terms, whether this is a likely outcome is a moot point, their main aim seems, unsurprisingly, to exact bribes: in some areas a fairly standard 50% of all the traveller's money.

Caution is also advised on long bus journeys, particularly across state lines, as police or military checkpoints exist and passengers may be asked for identification or searched. In general, however, these checks seem to be aimed at locals, particularly in the Zapatista homeland in Chiapas.

Go next

The Yucatán is a good launching point for going to Chiapas, Belize, Cuba and Guatemala.

This article is issued from Wikivoyage - version of the Sunday, December 06, 2015. The text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike but additional terms may apply for the media files.