United States without a car

Las Vegas Strip; prepare for some sitting!

The United States of America is called the home country of the automobile; having a quarter of a billion cars on the roads (which amounts to roughly 25% of all cars in the world), more than any other nation. And the highest number of cars per capita of any non city-state country. Consequently, car dependent settlement patterns and mass motorization have reached higher, more extreme, levels in the US than anywhere else and cars have become so pervasive that their ownership is still often assumed as the default.

Still, many travelers want to get around without a car, whether for the lack of a driver's license, to save money, or to minimize environmental footprint. Another reason is that city driving can be quite stressful and many people want to enjoy a relaxing holiday away from even the thought of their annoying daily commute.


By train

See also: Rail travel in the United States

One popular alternative to car travel are the various forms of urban and intercity rail service. Unfortunately American rail services are slower than most counterparts in Europe and Asia and intercity services often run no more than once a day. However, urban rail networks are expanding in many cities and some intercity rail lines have seen minor improvements in recent years as well. The area best covered by passenger rail services (of all kinds) is generally the Northeast between the cities of Boston and Washington DC with some urban rail and Amtrak services branching out further with reasonable travel times and frequencies even beyond that area. Another area that is surprisingly well covered both in terms of frequency of trains and number of stops is California. Train service between Oakland and Los Angeles will remain slow until the completion of the high-speed rail link in a few years; nonetheless, the Bay Area is well covered by BART (Bay Area Rapid Transit) and CalTrain, which goes all the way south to Gilroy, and with the extension of the LA Subway and light rail lines (Metro Rail), the notoriously car-centric Los Angeles area is now at least partially accessible without a car. Current trends indicate that local and regional train coverage will only get better in the future, with several local and statewide rail improvements either scheduled for construction or being built right now.

Another important hub for rail travel is Chicago, with many Amtrak lines terminating there or going through the city. If you are traveling by train from coast to coast, chances are you will pass through Chicago. However, few lines have top speeds significantly higher than 79mph, even though some upgrades are currently planned or underway. In addition to that, Chicago has a functioning and well patronized urban rail system. Still, some of the most popular tourist destinations in the US cannot be reached by train alone. Neither Las Vegas nor the Yellowstone National Park currently sees any regular train service. Amtrak serves 46 states, i.e. all with the exception of Hawaii (urban rail under construction on Oahu), Alaska (served by the Alaska Railroad, see below), South Dakota and Wyoming (both states entirely without passenger trains). Even in some of the states it does "serve", the biggest city or metro area is not served by Amtrak. Idaho for example only sees one route passing through the panhandle in the extreme north of the state, while missing the major population centers.

If you want to combine bike and rail, Amtrak offers you to carry your bike. See their regulations on special items for details. See also here.

Alaska is not served by Amtrak but does have train service through the Alaska Railroad, which mainly serves a corridor between Seward and Fairbanks via Anchorage. Outside of that corridor, Alaska is fairly inaccessible by rail. However, this is also true to a degree for cars. For example, the capital, Juneau, cannot be reached by other means than sea and air. As a matter of fact, some of the places served by the Alaska railroad are not connected to any road and hence the train is the only practicable way to get there.

Heritage railways exist throughout the US and in some places they do provide some transportation value, with some serving a station Amtrak also serves and coordinating their schedule with Amtrak. In other places tourist railways or dinner trains are mostly employed for their novelty value and don't offer transportation beyond short round trips or circular tours.

By bus

See also: Intercity bus travel in the USA
Greyhound buses in Portland

Intercity

While there are in fact places that see Amtrak service but none through the main intercity bus companies, overall their coverage is better as some sort of intercity bus operates in all fifty states (whereas Amtrak currently only covers 46). There is a wide range of quality and price but generally you will have lower prices than on Amtrak for most trips (in the Northeast Corridor dramatically so) in exchange for a bit less legroom and less ability to walk around during trips or get food on the moving bus. Many bus companies are still or have historically been associated with immigrant communities (like the fabled Chinatown-buses or the newer Mexican-American buses) and are still mostly patronized by them. While intercity bus stops can be in all parts of town and they are often downtown as well, some are in somewhat problematic neighborhoods. Usually our city-guides mention that and if that is the case, try to avoid late night arrivals or departures.

Local

While the coverage by local buses is by no means universal, most populated places in the US have at least token bus service with varying degrees of actual usefulness. Unfortunately they are not always clearly labeled in system maps, unlike most urban rail systems. Getting around by bus within a metro area thus often requires asking around or using one of the newer transportation apps. Night service while becoming slightly more common over time is still the exception rather than the rule and even in major cities you may find yourself "stranded".

Environmental impact

The environmental impact of buses is lower than that of even the fullest airplanes; however, comparisons to trains and in some cases even cars are much harder to make. If one assumes the average occupancy to be nine people (as is assumed for city buses) even a car with an average of 1.2 people in it starts to become competitive in terms of passenger miles per gallon. However if one assumes yield managed intercity buses on busy routes with 80% or more occupancy, even Amtrak cannot compete in terms of fuel efficiency per passenger. As Amtrak only runs electrified routes in the Northeast, the question of how the electricity is generated is less important than in other countries, but as the Northeast still mostly depends on fossil fuels, electricity is not necessarily much "cleaner" than gasoline. In cities where urban rail exists, it beats buses hands down in terms of efficiency, not only because of higher occupancy but also because urban rail almost always runs on electricity and feeds part of the braking energy back into the grid.

By plane

Perhaps not very environmentally friendly, but flying is — at least for long distances — a fast and practical way from place to place. Also many smaller communities can be reached by plane. For more information, consult the article on air travel in the United States.

By boat

The US has a large system of inland waterways. And cruising the Erie Canal, the mighty Mississippi River or myriad other natural and man-made waterways is a great way to get around as well as an attraction in itself. In addition, the Alaska Marine Highway System connects Bellingham (Washington) with communities along Alaska's southern coast. Also, much of off-the-beaten-path-Alaska can just be accessed by boat.

Unlike much of Europe, sea-ferries play a very small role and there is no way to get to Hawaii except by cruise ship or plane, unless you own or rent a private vessel. Even between the individual islands of Hawaii there is only scant service, one connecting Maui and Molokai and the other serving Maui and Lana'i.

By bicycle

LA Metro bus with a bike rack in the front

Some U.S. cities have bike-sharing services. However, the presence of dedicated bike lanes is inconsistent between and even within cities. Good cities for cycling include Portland (Oregon), Chicago, Denver

Cycling between cities is also possible, but there are vast expanses between certain cities, and bicycles are banned on the limited-access Interstate highway system, so long-distance cyclists must stick to older Federal, state and county roads and should be particularly careful on country roads where motorists drive fast and there is no shoulder on the road.

If cycling between cities just isn't your thing, both Amtrak and the major intercity bus operators allow bicycles on their vehicles - usually requiring some extra fee or reservation. However, do inquire in advance as to the current policy and what you have to keep in mind on the particular route you are traveling on. Special storage boxes or other requirements as well as handling or reservation fees may all apply, depending on where you go and which company takes you there.

On foot

Some American cities, particularly those which were already highly developed before World War II and therefore designed to be walkable, have downtown areas and some other neighborhoods that are good for walking. Among these are New York City, Washington, D.C., Philadelphia, Chicago, Boston, San Francisco, Seattle and Denver.

For the truly dedicated there are a number of (very) long distance hiking trails like the Appalachian trail or the Continental divide trail. However, there are stretches along those trails that are several day's marches from the next human settlement and as such we advise you to carefully plan your trip and read our articles on these trails carefully.

Good cities

Chicago's iconic "L" trains

Difficult cities

Also keep in mind that the suburban cities/municipalities surrounding the "Good Cities" (listed in the above) located 10-60mi (16-100km) out of the downtown core of the "Good Cities" can rival the "Difficult Cities" as well. So if you're staying in the surrounding suburbs or exburbs it may be worthwhile to consider a car if possible. Or on the reverse, if you want to forego a car, try to avoid suburban and exurban areas.

Popular countryside destinations

Of course, rural destinations are often more challenging to get to than cities. Natural attractions within a few hours drive from a nearby major city can often be accessed on a tour. For instance from Las Vegas there are tours to many nearby national parks. On the downside, your schedule and destination(s) within the expansive park will most certainly be set by the tour company. Furthermore many places that tours go to can feel a bit "over grazed". Consider taking a bus and biking or walking around yourself if possible to get to more out of the way places.

Otherwise your car-free options would be on foot or by bike, but this should be considered as an experience in itself rather than just a necessary way of getting in. Namely, especially in the western two thirds of the country, don't expect the next bus stop or train station to be a three hour stroll away like often is the case in Europe.

This article is issued from Wikivoyage - version of the Monday, March 21, 2016. The text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike but additional terms may apply for the media files.