Southern California

Southern California is a megapolitian area in the southern region of the U.S. state of California. The large urban areas comprised of Los Angeles and San Diego stretch all along the coast from Ventura to the Southland and Inland Empire to San Diego.

To the west of Southern California lies the Pacific Ocean and Channel Islands. To the south is the international border between the United States and Mexico. Towards the Arizona state border in the east lies the Colorado Desert and the Colorado River, and towards the Nevada state border lies the Mojave Desert. Though there is no official definition for the northern boundary of Southern California, most include all the land south of the Sierra Nevada Mountains and the Tehachapi Mountains.

Southern California is a culturally diverse and well known area worldwide. Many tourists frequently travel to South Coast for its popular beaches, and to the eastern Desert for its dramatic open spaces. Southern California, along with the San Francisco Bay Area, is a major cultural and economic center for the State of California and beyond.


Southern California is most easily divisible by counties. The following counties are completely in the Southern California region:

Due to their vast size (San Bernardino County is larger than nine of the states in the U.S.) and varied topography these counties are split among two different regions. The westernmost urban portions are considered part of Southern California and the eastern desert sections are part of Desert region.

Southern California is divided culturally, politically, and economically into distinctive regions, each containing its own culture and atmosphere. A region with both national and global recognition, Southern California is often considered the home to many tourist destinations and the hub of economic activity for its respective regions. Each region is further divided into many culturally distinct areas, but as a whole they combine to create the Southern California atmosphere.

Out of these regions, three are major metropolitan areas, each of which have over 3 million people. The Los Angeles area has over 12 million inhabitants, the Riverside-San Bernardino area has over 4 million inhabitants, and the San Diego area has over 3 million inhabitants. The region as a whole is practically identical in population to Texas, with more than 24.2 million people, and is the nation's most populous region behind the urban seaboard of the Northeastern United States.


Some of the major cities in the Southern California region include:

Urban Landscape. Southern California consists of a heavily developed urban environment, along with vast areas that have been left undeveloped. It is the second largest urbanized region in the United States, first being the Philadelphia/New York City/Boston Northeastern areas. These cities are considered dense, with major downtown populations and significant rail and transit systems, but much of Southern California is famous for its large, spread-out, suburban communities and use of automobiles and highways. The dominant areas are Los Angeles, Orange County, San Diego, Riverside, and San Bernardino, each of which is the center of its respective metropolitan area, composed of numerous smaller cities and communities.

Natural Landscape. Southern California consists of geologic, topographic, and natural ecosystem landscapes in a diverse setting, outnumbering other major regions across the state/country. The region spans from the Pacific Ocean islands, shorelines, beaches, and coastal plains, through the Peninsular Ranges with their peaks, into the large/small interior valleys, to the vast Deserts of California. Each year, the area has about 10,000 earthquakes. Nearly all of them are so small that they are not felt. Only several hundred are greater than magnitude 3.0, and only about 15-20 are greater than magnitude 4.0.

Other destinations

Southern California is home to numerous world-famous attractions including Disneyland, the San Diego Zoo, Legoland, and others.


Southern California is famous for the movie industry around LA (and if you explore a bit you are bound to find "exotic" locales from many a movie that were filmed in Southern California due to the proximity) and also for its sheer amount of freeways and highways. Southern Californians stereotypically spend most of their time when they meet each other talking about how horrible the traffic getting there was and how horrible the traffic getting back will be. Despite that its world class cities and suburbs continue to attract a wide variety of people from all over the country and abroad to live and vacation due to the pleasant climate and diverse landscapes with many natural and cultural attractions just a short (depending on congestion) drive away. Even though you can swim in the Pacific its cold currents make it somewhat less pleasant than you might think.


English is the official language of California and is the predominant language in Southern California. However, Spanish is also spoken by large Hispanic populations and it is not uncommon in Southern California to see store and street signs written in both English and Spanish. Armenian, Farsi, Chinese, Tagalog, Japanese, Hindi, Korean, Vietnamese, and Cambodian are also spoken by various immigrant groups.

Get in

By air

Los Angeles International Airport (IATA: LAX) is one of the busiest in the country and serves a wide variety of domestic and international connections

By rail

Amtrak (for inner-Californian services branded as "Amtrak California") serves most major cities, some through a bus connection from the last station as there are not always rail connections Amtrak can use. It is usually not the cheapest or the fastest option for longer distances and has thus historically played only a marginal role outside of commuter service, but road congestion and the increasingly annoying manner air passengers are treated by airlines and TSA as well as rising costs of other modes of transport have made Amtrak and commuter railways more and more attractive in recent years.

There is currently construction for a new high speed service linking San Francisco and Los Angeles. The network is scheduled to open in phases with the full distance completed by the late 2020s.

By car

Southern California is perhaps the most car dependent region in the US if not the world. As such a car is usually the most convenient but sometimes also the only way to get around. However congestion is frequent and during rush hour freeways and highways become parking lots. If you can arrange it try driving in off-peak hours and getting a small group together to travel in the (usually less congested) car pool lane.

Get around

Transportation in Southern California consists of public transit, rail transit, airports, shuttle services, highways, roads and bike paths.

By car

Most Southern Californians drive their personal cars to get around. Just listen to the morning and evening traffic reports and you'll get an idea of how many cars are driven in the area each and every day.

As such, a special vocabulary has developed surrounding the road system.

The metropolitan regions of Southern California consist of many small cities that run into one another. It can be confusing and you can get lost very easily if you do not have a map, even with detailed directions. A Thomas Guide, which contains detailed maps of all neighborhoods, is a useful tool if you plan on doing any driving in Southern California. This book can be found in local stores and bookstores.

The freeways and highways are one of the major trademarks of the region. Extensive and complex freeway networks criss-cross the quickly-growing region, connecting urban centers with their suburbs, as well as the areas of urban sprawl between them. The major highways leading in and out of Southern California include Interstates 5,8,10,15,40, the Golden State, San Diego, Ocean Beach, Mission Valley, Santa Monica, Corona and Mojave Freeways.

Freeway system

The freeway naming conventions can be confusing to non-natives as a freeway will have multiple names depending on where in Southern California a particular section is located. When referring to a particular freeway by number, it is prefixed by the word "the". For example, Interstate 5 is referred to as "the 5" and State Route 91 is referred to as "the 91". Below is a basic guide to the various ways a particular freeway may be referenced.

There are a few key locations that are referred to in traffic reports that may be unfamiliar to out-of-town visitors.

Public transit

Public Transportation in Southern California includes:

Major hubs of transportation and logistics are planning major capital investments in Southern California over the next several years. They have the largest federal stimulus project in L.A. County: the Harry Bridges reconstruction project. This will be a big commitment consisting of 250 construction jobs for a $25 million project. They also just kicked off a six-year expansion to the China Shipping Terminal which will include new wharfs, new cranes, and about 4,000 jobs at full capacity.

Mass transit is available throughout the area, with many connecting together at shared stops. The regional commuter train,MetroLink, connects many of the outreaching areas, where many commuters live, with Los Angeles and Orange County, where they work. This train system comes in handy when you need to get from one area to another, even with their limited schedule.

By air

While it is theoretically possible to get around Southern California by air, the cost prohibits all but the most affluent from doing so. The major airports in the area include the Los Angeles, John Wayne (Orange County), San Diego and Palm Springs International Airports. There are smaller regional airports in Burbank, Long Beach, and Ontario.

By thumb

It is not worth trying. Cities are too close together and there are too many access points to the highway, making it nearly impossible to find someone going your way. Your best bets are the 101 north of Santa Barbara, the 5 north of Santa Clarita, or east until you escape the sprawling cityscape.

On foot

Though Los Angeles is known throughout the US for suburban sprawl and car-dependent development in recent years efforts to make it more walkable have had some success, and you can now feasibly walk to many points in SoCal, that were previously only reachable by motorized vehicles.


Southern California is home to many motion picture, television, and recorded music companies. This region is home to the world's largest adult entertainment industry, located primarily in the San Fernando Valley, and Hollywood (the center of the motion picture industry, at least in name). Headquartered in Southern California is The Walt Disney Company (Burbank), MGM/Sony Pictures (Culver City), Universal (Universal City), Paramount Pictures (Hollywood), DreamWorks (Universal City), 20th Century Fox (Century City) and Warner Brothers (Burbank).

SoCal is home to many sports franchises and sports networks such as Fox Sports Net. Professional teams that are located in the region include the Los Angeles Lakers (basketball), Los Angeles Clippers, Los Angeles Dodgers (Baseball), Los Angeles Angels of Anaheim, San Diego Padres, Los Angeles Kings, Anaheim Ducks (Ice Hockey), Los Angeles Galaxy (Soccer), San Diego Chargers American Football and Los Angeles Rams. Southern California also is home to a number of popular NCAA (college) sports programs, such as the UCLA Bruins, the USC Trojans, and the San Diego State Aztecs.


Southern California is home to the movie studios of Hollywood, theme parks such as Disneyland and Universal Studios, and beautiful beaches.


Most types of food can be found in the towns and cities of Southern Californian-especially popular are Mexican, Chinese, Thai, Japanese, Vietnamese, Salvadoran, Korean BBQ, Indian, Pilipino, and Armenian.

Southern California is the birthplace of modern day American fast food such as McDonald's (now headquartered in the Chicago metropolitan area). One should not miss out on In-N-Out Burger, which has multiple locations throughout the SoCal region. The menu is pretty straightforward, but a "secret" menu allows you to customize by ordering "animal style" fries and burgers.

For a taste of California, you can visit a farmers’ market and rub shoulders with celebrity chefs and foodie insiders picking out the finest organic produce. You can also step into sleek restaurants serving innovative, ultra-fresh California cuisine. You can taste gelato made with locally produced chocolate and toasted hazelnuts, or handmade cheeses from local farms. Drive down a tree-lined lane to wineries in grand chateaus, or relaxed, family-run vineyards where the guy pouring and chatting in the tasting room is a world-class winemaker.

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This article is issued from Wikivoyage - version of the Thursday, March 24, 2016. The text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike but additional terms may apply for the media files.