Capital Moscow
Currency Russian ruble (₽) RUB
Population 146,200,000 (2014 estimate)
Electricity 220V/50Hz (European plug)
Country code +7
Time zone UTC +2 to UTC +12

Russia (Russian: Россия) is by far the largest country in the world, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, spanning Eastern Europe and northern Asia, sharing land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (by administering the Kaliningrad Oblast exclave on the Baltic coast), Belarus, and Ukraine to the west, Georgia (including the disputed regions of Abkhazia and South Ossetia) and Azerbaijan to the southwest, and Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia, North Korea to the east and much of the south. While geographically mostly in Asia, the bulk of Russia's population is concentrated in the European part and, culturally, Russia is unmistakably European.


Central Russia (Moscow, Ivanovo Oblast, Kaluga Oblast, Kostroma Oblast, Moscow Oblast, Ryazan Oblast, Smolensk Oblast, Tver Oblast, Tula Oblast, Vladimir Oblast, Yaroslavl Oblast)
The richest side in the entire country, dominated by spectacular architecture and historical buildings. It is the country's gate to Europe, and houses the capital city, Moscow.
Chernozemye (Belgorod Oblast, Bryansk Oblast, Kursk Oblast, Lipetsk Oblast, Oryol Oblast, Tambov Oblast, Voronezh Oblast)
South of Central Russia and famous for its rich, deep, black soil (Chernozem is Russian for "black soil"), it was an important battleground during World War II.
Northwestern Russia (Saint Petersburg, Arkhangelsk Oblast, Karelia, Komi Republic, Leningrad Oblast, Murmansk Oblast, Nenetsia, Novgorod Oblast, Pskov Oblast, Vologda Oblast)
Home to the former imperial capital Saint Petersburg, also known as the "northern capital". It combines the beautiful landscape of the large lakes Ladoga and Onega, and medieval forts of Pskov Oblast, with the lacustrine region of Karelia, and is a gateway from Scandinavia.
Kaliningrad Oblast (often considered part of Northwestern Russia)
The only exclave of Russia, the Kaliningrad oblast allows Russia to share borders with Poland and Lithuania, and will be the location of some matches of the 2018 FIFA World Cup.
Southern Russia (Adygea, Chechnya, Dagestan, Ingushetia, Kabardino-Balkaria, Kalmykia, Karachay-Cherkessia, Krasnodar Krai, North Ossetia, Rostov Oblast, Stavropol Krai)
The warmest region in the entire country, with beautiful resort cities such as subtropical Sochi, and also brings a path to the mountainous North Caucasus.
Volga Region (Astrakhan Oblast, Chuvashia, Kirov Oblast, Mari El, Mordovia, Nizhny Novgorod Oblast, Penza Oblast, Samara Oblast, Saratov Oblast, Tatarstan, Udmurtia, Ulyanovsk Oblast, Volgograd Oblast)
The most industrialized region in the country, known for producing wide-scale military equipment in cities such as Izhevsk, with a rich culture and history.
Urals Region (Bashkortostan, Chelyabinsk Oblast, Khantia-Mansia, Kurgan Oblast, Orenburg Oblast, Perm Krai, Sverdlovsk Oblast, Tyumen Oblast, Yamalia)
One of the wealthiest regions, known for producing many of the resources Russia needs today and is named after vast Ural mountains.
Siberia (Altai Krai, Altai Republic, Buryatia, Irkutsk Oblast, Kemerovo Oblast, Khakassia, Krasnoyarsk Krai, Novosibirsk Oblast, Omsk Oblast, Tomsk, Tuva, Zabaykalsky Krai)
The largest area in the country diverse in landscape and yearly temperatures with stunning lakes, world longest rivers, but swampy in most part in the center and north. Provides a gate to enter into much of Asia.
Russian Far East (Amur Oblast, Chukotka, Jewish Autonomous Oblast, Kamchatka Krai, Khabarovsk Krai, Magadan Oblast, Primorsky Krai, Sakhalin Oblast, Yakutia)
One of the coldest regions in Russia, home to the coldest city in the world, Yakutsk. World famous for national parks, beautiful scenery and mountains, and the volcanoes of Kamchatka. Also a gate to enter into North Korea and China


Here is a representative sample of nine Russian cities with their Anglicized and Russian Cyrillic names:

The Hermitage Museum in St. Petersburg

Other destinations

Lake Baikal, the deepest lake in the world

Russia, by mind, one can't understand,
Nor measure by common yardstick.
She has of herself a build unique:
In Russia you only believe.

«Умом Россию не понять,
Аршином общим не измерить:
У ней особенная стать —
В Россию можно только верить.»,
Fyodor Tyutchev, 1866



An Imperial Power

See also: Russian Empire

Russian identity can be traced to the Middle Ages, its first state known as Kievan Rus and its religion rooted in Byzantine Christianity (i.e. Greek Orthodox as opposed to Latin Catholic) that was adopted from Constantinople. However it was not considered part of mainstream Europe until the reign of Tsar Peter the Great, who ruled until 1725. He was a dedicated Europhile and the first Tsar to visit 'Europe proper', having visited several European countries as an apprentice while travelling incognito prior to his rise to power (there are commemorative monuments to him at Greenwich and some spots in the Netherlands, where he resided briefly).

Peter established the Russian Empire in 1721, although the Romanov dynasty had been in power since 1613. One of Russia's most charismatic and forceful leaders, Peter built the foundations of empire on a centralized and authoritarian political culture and forced "Westernization" of the nation. As part of this effort he moved the capital from the medieval and insular city of Moscow to St. Petersburg, a city built by force of his will and strength of his treasury. Modelled largely on French and Italianate styles, St. Petersburg became known as Russia's "Window on the West" and adopted the manners and style of the royal courts of western Europe, to the point of adopting French as its preferred language.

The Russian Empire reached its peak during the late 18th and early 19th centuries, producing many colourful and enlightened figures such as Catherine the Great, Dostoevsky, and Tolstoy. Nevertheless, the gulf between the authoritarian dynasty and its subjects became more apparent with each generation. While Russia proved to be at least equal to some of the great powers as early as in the great nordic war (1700-1721) and the seven years war, it wasn't until Napoleon's ill fated invasion that the rest of Europe took note, that Russia had risen to a great power on equal footing with France, Prussia or Austria. However due in part to its ultra-authoritarian reactionary government this position of power didn't last long. By the late 19th century, political crises followed in rapid succession, with rebellion and repression locked a vicious cycle of death and despair. The occasional attempts by the Romanovs and the privileged classes to reform the society and ameliorate the condition of the underclasses invariably ended in failure. A contributing factor may well have been that the (relatively) liberal and reformist "czar-liberator" Alexander II got assassinated by an Anarchist for his troubles in 1881. After his death, his successors were even less willing to reform. To make matters worse, Russia proved unlucky in foreign policy and both the Crimean and the Russo-Japanese wars proved disastrous militarily but even more politically. The 1905 revolution - the last one that could be more or less suppressed - was in part caused by the apparent "non-entity" (in European eyes at least) of Japan humiliating the Russian military. Russia entered World War I on the side of Britain and France, ostensibly to defend Serbia, like other European Empires with catastrophic results for itself. Tsar Nicholas II and his wife, a granddaughter of Queen Victoria, proved to be feckless, weak, and distracted by personal tragedies (such as the heir apparent's hemophilia) and the burdens of the war. While at first the Russian military proved to be stronger than Germany had anticipated and threatened to negate Germany's (than) advances on the western front with victories in the east, after the Russian defeat near Tanneberg, the tide turned and by 1917 morale was abysmal, desertion rampant and a general call for peace omnipresent. The government proved unable to hold back the Russian Revolutions of 1917 (a bourgeois one in February and a Leninist one in October). While the short lived provisional government that resulted from the revolution of February 1917 tried in vain to fight on (in part on French and British urging as they feared the troops currently engaged against Russia would overwhelm them), the Bolsheviki under their leader Vladimir Ilyich "Lenin" Ulyanov where quick to promise bread, peace and an end to the unfair distribution of land and wealth. Many people believed Lenin's promises and by October 1917 the communist Bolsheviki had taken over Moscow and St. Petersburg (than called Petrograd and soon to be renamed Leningrad) and thus the effective control of government. Deposed and held under house arrest, Nicholas, Alexandra, and their children—and with them the Romanov dynasty—were killed by gunfire on order of the new government under Lenin in the basement of a Yekaterinburg manor house and buried in unmarked graves which were found after Communism and reburied in the St. Paul and Peter Cathedral in Saint Petersburg.

Headquarters of Communism

See also: Soviet Union

World War I strained Imperial Russia's governmental and social institutions to the breaking point of Revolution in 1917. Following a brief interim government headed by social democrat Alexander Kerensky, the Bolshevik faction (named after Russian "bolshoi" great, due to the faction being the majority in one internal decision although generally in the minority) of the Communist Party under Marxist Vladimir Lenin seized power, withdrew Russia from the war, and launched a purge of clerics, political dissidents, aristocrats, the bourgeoisie, and the kulak class of wealthy independent farming classes. A brutal civil war between the "Red Army" of the communist leadership and the "White Army" of the nobility and middle classes lasted until late 1920. In the civil war both reds and whites (and variously other, smaller factions) committed war crimes and devastated the country well beyond what it had suffered in the First World War. In his years in power, Lenin used the Red Army (organized and built up in no small part by Trotsky whom many saw as his designated successor), the internal security apparatus, and the Communist Party leadership to kill imprison or exile millions of political opponents, launch a terror campaign to insure strict Communist orthodoxy, secure control over the fragments of the old Romanov Empire, and "collectivize" farmers and farming into gigantic state-owned farms.

The revolutionary state was not directly ruled by the officials in titular control of the government, which was established in the name of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR). The government in the commonly understood sense was largely irrelevant both in fact and in Communist theory throughout the years of Communist control. The real power lay in the leadership of the Communist Party, the Red Army, and the internal security apparatus (secret police).

Following Lenin's death in 1924, a power struggle among the Bolshevik leadership ensued, with Josef Stalin emerging as the new leader of the Communist Party and dictator of the USSR. While Lenin almost certainly would have preferred somebody else to succeed him, Stalin went as far as inserting himself into pictures with Lenin and removing others to make his claim to power seem "legitimate". Stalin's brutal rule (1928–53) was marked by waves of "purges" in which suspected dissidents in the government, the Party, the Red Army, and even the security forces were executed or exiled to gulags (prison camps) on little or no evidence. In addition to following up Lenin's forced collectivization of agriculture and his destruction of private property and economic liberty, Stalin introduced a ruthless economic system ("socialism in one country") that rapidly industrialized the USSR. While the death toll was abhorrent, Stalin's first five year plan managed to create a heavy industry almost out of thin air, a fact that should prove decisive in the second world war. Mao's later "great leap" was modeled along Stalin's plan with an even higher death toll and less measurable economic success as a result. Stalin's rivals to succeed Lenin, as well as critics arising thereafter, typically ended up as victims of the purges. Although seen as less of an idealist than his predecessor, Stalin did relentlessly pursue international revolution through the Russia-based "Comintern" control over the communist parties of foreign countries, and foreign espionage. If you want to get an idea for Stalin's rule: "Animal Farm" and "1984" by George Orwell were in large parts based on his disillusion with socialism after hearing of Stalin's atrocities.

World War II, from a Soviet perspective, began with Stalin abruptly entering into a Non-Aggression Pact with Nazi Germany. The Treaty, which shook Western governments to their core and stunned the Left in Europe and America, guaranteed Hitler a free hand to launch war against Poland, France, and England. The Pact also granted the USSR itself leave to invade and conquer neutral Finland and take over all of eastern Poland after the German invasion in 1939. Finally in June 1941, having conquered France and most of the rest of Western Europe, Hitler turned on his erstwhile ally and invaded the USSR. A change to an alliance of necessity with the Western nations was instrumental in the defeat of Nazism in 1945. The Red Army's bloody campaigns on the Eastern Front as well as the murderous warfare and related crimes of the Nazis, resulted in over 20 million Russian deaths, most of them civilian victims, or soldiers thrown into ghastly land battles. Both sides treated prisoners of war in an abhorrent fashion and a big number of them died on both sides. The last German POWs only returned in the mid-1950s in exchange for political recognition by West Germany.

At the conclusion of the Second World War, the USSR rapidly moved to establish control over all of Eastern Europe. It annexed the Baltic states and installed Communist regimes in East Germany, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Bulgaria, Yugoslavia, and Romania and effectively crushed political dissent. In Asia, it also helped to install communist governments in Mongolia, China, North Vietnam and North Korea. Western critics came to describe the USSR and its European and Asian "satellites" as trapped behind an "Iron Curtain" of ruthless totalitarianism and command economies. Yugoslavia's Communist Party managed to establish a degree of independence from Moscow, but uprisings in Hungary (1956) and Czechoslovakia (1968) were ruthlessly crushed.

After Stalin's death in 1953, Soviet heavy industry and military might continued to grow under Georgy Malenkov (1953-1955) and Nikita Khrushchev (1955-1964), Stalin's successors as General Secretary of the Party. Although attempts were made to produce consumer goods, the efforts usually failed, and the USSR continued to struggle under the yoke of collectivization and totalitarianism. In 1956, Khrushchev renounced the excesses of Stalin's regime and commenced his own purge of sorts to "de-Stalinise" the economy and society of the USSR. Results were mixed, and Khrushchev himself was deposed. However as he himself later remarked, him being deposed and not outright murdered can be seen as a late success of his policies. In the late 1950s, the USSR jump-started the space race and was the first to launch a thing (Sputnik), a living thing (Laika the dog) a man (Yuri Gagarin) and a woman (Valentina Tereshkova) into space. However soon after those initial advances the brilliant head designer Sergei Korolev died of natural causes in 1966 and a combination of infighting among his successors lack of funds and wrong technological and strategic decisions led to the Soviet space program being overtaken by the US thereafter. When the moon landing in 1969 proved that the Americans were now in the lead, the focus of the Soviet space program was instead changed to unmanned probes and a space station, which resulted in the hugely successful MIR (Russian for peace) and big parts of the International Space Station built together with the Western Nations after the fall of the Soviet Union. The Soviet Union's reached its military, diplomatic, and industrial peak during the closing years of Leonid Brezhnev (1964-1982). But continuing corruption and economic malaise marched inexorably to a crisis that eventually led General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev (1985–91) to introduce glasnost (openness) and perestroika (limited economic freedom). His initiatives inadvertently released forces that by December 1991 splintered the empire. The European satellites broke free from rule by the USSR and their local Communist leaders and the USSR itself collapsed into 15 independent countries.

A Nascent Democracy and the rise of Putin

Novgorod memorial to the Viking Ryurik and the ensuing 1,000 years of Russian history

The Russian Federation emerged from the Soviet Union, accompanied by a storm of problems followed. The first leader of the newly formed nation was Boris Yeltsin, who rose to power by standing up to an attempted putsch by the KGB. Yeltsin largely succeeded in transferring control over the country from the old Soviet elite to his own oligarchical apparatus. Yeltsin was a charismatic leader widely supported by the West, but his government proved to be unstable and marred by corruption and Yeltsin's alcoholism. A wave of economic hardship put Russia's economy in ruins and left the military underfunded and undisciplined. During this time, Russian organized crime and its relationship with the government, now universally recognized as corrupt and incompetent, assumed greater control over the nation, even as political reforms were taking place. Ironically, before he came to power Yeltsin had labeled Russia as the "biggest Mafia state in the world".

Russia was also at war with Chechen separatists, which had devastating consequences for the already weak Russian economy. Widespread corruption, poverty, and large-scale political and social problems, eventually forced to Yeltsin resign, and Vladimir Putin filled his remaining term (January - April 2000) as President. An ex-KGB officer under the Communist regime (serving abroad in East Germany for a while), and head of the revived Russian spy service under Yeltsin, Putin imposed his own personality and will on the unruly and criminal quarters of the country, but has been much condemned for his authoritarian behavior. Having served his constitutionally limited terms (2000-2008), Putin titularly stepped down as President but continued to control the government through his anointed successor, Dmitry Medvedev. To no one's surprise, Putin resumed the presidency when eligible again in 2012. In 2014 and 2015 Russia came under increasing pressure and criticism after numerous foreign and domestic policies including the way Putin and his party handle political opposition and the nationalistic overtones in some of his policies and speeches. The situation in Crimea and Ukraine is said by the EU and USA to be Putin's fault though he at least partially lays the blame on them.

Since 2000, under Putin's direct and indirect rule, the economy has bounced back from crisis, thanks in no small part to five-fold increases in the prices of raw materials Russia has in abundance. Inflation has dropped down from the triple digits into single units, poverty has been reduced, and Russia has re-emerged as a dominant regional economic, political and military power. This performance has often been called the "Russian Miracle."

Today, the modern Russia still has to fully recover from the doldrums that have hit the country in recent years, with inflation driving up prices, an increasingly unstoppable burden to combat pervasive corruption, an under-competitive political system, conflict in the North Caucasus, a demographic crisis, and decreasing economic competition. Russians also appear to be facing up to the problem of reconciling Putin's successes with his totalitarian and self-aggrandizing impulses. Nonetheless, Russians have achieved a much higher standard of living since the fall of the USSR. However when the prices of some commodities, most notably petroleum plummeted in late 2014 / early 2015 this hit the Russian economy hard and effects of it are still visible. Whether Russia can escape this dependece on its resource wealth remains yet to be seen.


The terrain consists of broad plains with low hills west of the Urals; vast coniferous forest and tundra in Siberia; uplands and mountains along southern border regions; mountainous and volcanic throughout much of the Russian Far East.


Russia is a cold country, but there are always shades in the grey. The contrast of tundra's permafrost, which occupies 65% of Russian land and exotic Black sea coast has in between the continental climate, which is the most inhabited zone of European Russia, southern regions of Siberia and the Russian Far East. Its summers are always warm with a good portion of hot days enabling outdoor swimming in many of rivers, lakes and the seas.


Siberian birch forest near Novosibirsk

Russia's list of holidays is divided into federally and regionally established, ethnic, historical, professional and religious. The first two types are all-country day-off and should be taken into account while planning a trip. These are official holidays in Russian Federation:

Measurement units

The Russian system of measurement is the same as the rest of the world apart from the US and Burma; the SI system. Expect to encounter degrees Celsius, kilometres, kilogrammes, litres and so on. The archaic units for distance are versta and vershok; for weight — pud.

Time zones

Time zones in Russia

As of 2016, Russia spans eleven time zones, and Daylight Saving Time is not used. Formerly the country has experimented with a smaller number of time zones and with DST.

Get in


The citizens of the following countries do not need a visa:

Everyone else requires a visa except the following two situations:

For those unfortunates that require a visa, the complexity of the process depends on the class of visa. Thirty day tourist visas are fairly straightforward to acquire; 90 day (and more) business visas, less so. On 9 Sep 2012, Russia and the United States entered into an agreement to simplify visa requirements. Pursuant to that agreement, US citizens are eligible for 3-year multiple-entry business, homestay/private, humanitarian and tourist visas without an invitation (but with proof of booking arrangements). It is best to start the application process well in advance. While expedited processing is available to those who need visas quickly, it can double the application cost.

I want a tourist visa and I don't want to book any accommodation before I have my visa

Specialist Russian visa companies can do this for you and you don't have to worry about filing any paperwork with embassies. Just send them money, your passport and the relevant information.

However, it's cheaper (but slightly more work) to use these agencies to get you an invitation and then lodge your application at the embassy yourself.

Arranging a visa basically involves two steps:

  1. Getting an invitation and
  2. Applying for the visa.

You may arrive at any time on or after the start date of your visa's validity and may depart at any time on or before its expiry date. Normally, an exit visa is included in transit, private visit/homestay, tourist, and business visas so long as the visa is still valid. Other classes, such as student visas, still require a separate exit visa that can take up to three weeks to process.

Exit and re-entry during the validity period of your visa requires permits. Getting these permits is a Kafkaesque bureaucratic nightmare that is best avoided entirely by getting a double- or multiple-entry visa in the first place.

If you're in Russia and have lost your passport, your sponsor, not your embassy, must apply to the Federal Migration Service to transfer your visa to your replacement passport. Having a copy of your old visa helps with this, but is not sufficient to let you depart. An exception is for U.S. citizens, who only need show proof that they had not exceeded their duration of permitted stay in order to depart (but a visa would be required for a return to Russia).

An unaccompanied minor with Russian nationality needs, apart from the regular requirements for adults, a notarized statements in Russian signed by both parents. This statement can be requested at the Russian embassy or consulate. The child is likely able to get into Russia without this statement, but will most likely be prevented by the Russian customs to get out of Russia at the airport!

1. Getting an invitation

Russia's most striking border crossing—the Friendship Bridge between the castles of Narva and Ivangorod

The invitation type determines the visa. A tourist invitation gets you a tourist visa, a private visit invitation gets you a private visit visa, etc. Except for tourist visas, invitations are official documents issued by Russian government agencies and must be applied for by the person or organization inviting you.

Any invitation will include the intended dates of travel and the number of entries requires (1, 2 or multiple). The dates on the invitation determine the period of the ensuing visa's validity. If in doubt of dates, ensure that the invitation covers a period longer than the intended stay: a tourist visa valid for 7 days costs the same as one valid for 30 days.

In the likely situation you have to buy your invitation, shop around globally: all invitations come from Russia and the company that gets it for you will have a base in Russia. It doesn't make a difference whether its website is based in Germany, UK, USA or Swaziland. Many embassies and consulates only require a copy of the invitation, however this is not always the case so check with the embassy or consulate beforehand. If the original invitation is required, it will have to be flown from Russia anyway. It is only applying for the visa itself that generally requires the application to be made in the applicant's homeland.

A tourist invitation (also called reservation confirmation) is a letter of confirmation of booking and pre-payment of accommodation and travel arrangements in Russia. It is accompanied by a tourist voucher. These two documents can be issued only by "government approved" tour operators, hotels, online hotel booking services or Russian travel agencies (several Russian travel agencies have offices outside Russia and are adept at facilitating visa applications). "Government approval" here is not an endorsement of quality; it means that the company is registered with the Russian government. An ordinary hotel booking is not sufficient to constitute an invitation. Some hotels charge a fee to issue the invitation. Booking one night in a hotel will get you an invitation valid for one day (maybe two) and hence the resulting visa will be valid for a very brief time.

For independent travellers planning to travel around Russia, it is best to get an invitation through an agency. For a fee, these agencies will issue the necessary invitations and vouchers to any passport holder in any country. They do this without actually collecting any accommodation prepayment (and without providing any accommodation, of course). Two big players in the online tourist visa support document business are Way to Russia, a company with a US base (invitation USD30), and Real Russia with a British base (invitation GBP15). While the strict legality of such is questionable, these companies are well established and do enough not to upset the authorities. Most importantly, their services do not lead to problems for the traveller. However, if your itinerary is confined to only one hotel, then it makes sense to obtain the invitation documents directly from the hotel as the service fee will be similar.

Consider getting a private/homestay visa if you have friends or relatives in Russia (they do not necessarily have to be Russian). They would need to seek an invitation through their local Passport and Visa Division of the Federal Migration Service (formerly OVIR). These invitations tend to take at least a month to process. The inviting individual also becomes solely responsible for all your activities while in Russia and can be penalized heavily if something were to go wrong. Because of this, personal invitations are usually not available for a fee through the net.

Business invitations are issued by the government. They are generally time-consuming and costly to acquire but they can be quickly arranged for exorbitant fees. Any registered company in Russia can apply for a business invitation. Travel agencies and visa specialists can also get them issued for you. Business visas have longer validity than tourist visas. Being a tourist on a business visa is permitted, so anyone wanting more than a 30-day stay should get one of these. As a rough guide, one UK company can arrange a business invitation for a single 90 day stay for various amounts between GBP38 (for 12 working day processing) and GBP121 (for 2 working day processing).

Invitations for student visas are issued by the educational institution where you plan to study. Most universities and language schools are familiar with the process.

Some Russian local governments have a right to invite foreigners for cultural exchanges by sending a message directly to the Embassy or Consulate of Russia overseas, requesting the visa be issued to a particular foreigner or group of foreigners. Such messages are used instead of an invitation. This is normally the way to go if you are invited by the government.

2. Applying for the visa

Arriving via nuclear-powered ice breaker is always one option.

Different embassies and consulates have different requirements for visa applications. They may issue visas by mail, they may require application in person, they may accept a copy of the invitation, they may require the original. They may accept payment by card, they may insist on a money order. Check with the embassy or consulate beforehand - in most cases it will be on their website. Holders of U.S., Canadian, and British passports typically have to complete a longer application. Getting a Russian visa issued away from your country of nationality or one you have a residence permit valid for at least three months can be tricky. This can ruin plans for east-to-west trans-Siberian trippers. In Asia, success (no means guaranteed) is most likely to be found in Hong Kong and Phnom Penh (if necessary, temporary Cambodian residence is simple to buy and only costs about USD100).

Visa service companies, for a fee, will double-check your application and invitation, go to the embassy for you, and return your passport to you. This service is nothing that you cannot do yourself (unlike arranging the invitation) but it can save time and frustration.

A single entry, 30-day tourist visa for citizens of EU-Schengen countries costs €35 and takes three working days for standard processing (€70 gets express service for next day collection). For UK citizens the price is GBP50 and processing takes 5 working days not 3 (express service is next day and costs £100). For citizens of the USA the price is, at the present, USD160 with standard processing being at least 4 working days (express service is USD250 and stated to be 3 working days).

In some countries which have a busy trade in Russian visas (eg, UK and USA), the visa processing has been outsourced to private companies. These companies levy a further unavoidable application fee on top of the visa fees stated above. For applications made in the UK (by a citizen of any country) the application fee is GBP26.40 for standard service and GBP33.60 for express service. For applications made in the USA, the application fee is USD30.

The total cost of getting a visa usually has three parts: invitation fee, visa fee and application fee. If you're lucky, one or more of these may be zero but be prepared to be hit by all three. Take as an example a UK citizen applying for a 30-day, single entry tourist visa with standard processing in the UK (not the cheapest example and not the most expensive): invitation bought through an agency: GBP15, visa fee: GBP50, application fee: GBP26.40 = GBP91.40 (that's roughly USD140).

Usually, tourist, homestay, and transit visas can allow one or two entries. Tourist and homestay visas have a maximum validity of 30 days. Transit visas are typically for one to three days for air travel and up to ten days for overland journeys. Business and other visa categories can be issued for one, two or multiple entries.

Russia one year visa

Any business visa can permit a maximum stay in any one visit of up to 90 days. However, a business visa generally only permits a total stay of 90 days in Russia in a 180-day period, regardless of how long it is valid for (whether it be 3, 6, or 12 months). If you stay in Russia for 90 days, you have to leave and your visa will not permit you to return for another 90 days. This means (give or take - a year isn't 360 days) that a six month visa permits as long a total time in Russia as a three month visa!

Once you have your visa, check all the dates and information as it's much easier to correct mistakes before you travel than after you arrive!

Visa free entry by ship

For instance St.Petersburg can be visited visa free if you arrive and leave by boat

There is an exception for some cruise passengers, arriving in and leaving from Russia by boat. They do not need a visa if they stay in Russia less than 72 hours. Examples include the Saimaa canal cruises from Lappeenranta (Finland) to Vyborg and St.Peter Line's cruises to St Petersburg from Helsinki, Tallinn or Stockholm. Do not overstay the visa waiver. If you do overstay, you need to apply for an exit visa, need to pay a fine of at least €500 and will not be able to enter Russia on a visa waiver for the next five years. The visa process in this case may take over a week, during which you need to pay for your stay and food.

Arrival and customs

On arriving in Russia, you'll have to fill out a landing card. As in most places, one half is surrendered on entry and the other portion should remain with your passport until you leave Russia. It is usually printed in both Russian and English though other languages may be available. Upon leaving Russia, a lost landing card may be overlooked with the help of a nominal fine.

Usually, you will be permitted to enter and remain in Russia for the term of your visa but it's up to the immigration officer to decide and they may decide otherwise, though this is unlikely.

Those who enter Russia with valuable electronic items or musical instruments (especially violins that look antique and expensive), antiques, large amounts of currency, or other such items are required to declare them on the customs entry card and must insist on having the card stamped by a customs officer upon arrival. Even if the customs officer claims that it is not necessary to declare such items, insist on a stamp on your declaration. Having this stamp may prevent considerable hassle (fines, confiscation) upon departure from Russia should the customs agent at departure decide that an item should have been declared upon entry.


Upon arrival to Russia and then subsequently upon arriving in any new city, you must be registered within 7 business days of arriving. Your host in that city (not necessarily the one who issued the invitation) is responsible for registering you. The proof of registration is a separate piece of paper with a big blue stamp on it. Registration costs money, is annoying and is not generally checked upon leaving Russia. However, it is worth doing at least in the first city you visit. Larger hotels will not let you check in without seeing your registration (at least if you've been in Russia for more than 7 business days) and corrupt police who insist that a lack of registration is your fault are more annoying and more expensive than paying the registration fee.

This law is a relic from the Soviet days of controlled internal migration. Today, even Russians are supposed to register if they move cities. The official line is that these expensive pieces of paper with blue stamps, help control illegal immigration from the poorer countries on Russia's southern borders in Central Asia, the Caucasus, China and even North Korea.

Keep visa woes in perspective—it used to be even harder to travel around here.

Overstaying a visa

If you overstay, even by a few minutes, you will likely be prohibited from leaving until you obtain a valid exit visa. You may be able to obtain a visa extension from the consular officer at an airport against the payment of a fine if you overstayed for fewer than three days, but this is not guaranteed. Generally, though, obtaining an extension requires an intervention by your sponsor, a payment of a fine, and a wait of up to three weeks.

Be careful if your flight leaves after midnight and be aware of the time at which the train crosses the border. Border guards will not let you depart if you're leaving even 10min after your visa expires! A common pitfall is the Helsinki-bound train, which only enters Finland after midnight.

If your overstay was due to reasons such as medical problems, the Federal Migration Service may instead issue a Home Return Certificate rather than an exit visa which is valid to depart Russia within ten days of issue.

By plane

The hammer and sickle flies on, Aeroflot

Moscow and Saint Petersburg are served by direct flights from most European capitals, and Moscow also has direct flights from many cities in East Asia, South Asia, Africa, the Middle East, and North America. US non-stop flights from the United States to Russia are offered by Singapore (from Houston to Moscow, Domodedovo), Delta (from New York and Atlanta to Moscow, Sheremetyevo), United Airlines (from Washington to Moscow, Domodedovo) and Aeroflot (from New York, Washington and Los Angeles to Moscow, Sheremeryevo).

There are three international airports in Moscow: Sheremetyevo IATA: SVO in the northwest, Domodedovo IATA: DME in the south and Vnukovo IATA: VKO in the southwest. While each has an express rail connection (RUB470) to a main railway station in the city, each of the stations are quite far apart which makes travelling between the airports quite challenging, so allow several hours between flights from different airports. A taxi between any of the airports should cost about RUB1,500 (be prepared to negotiate hard). By public transport, costs range from roughly RUB200 for buses to just under RUB700 for the aeroexpress trains. The system is very user unfriendly so don't expect an easy, convenient or quick transfer.

Airport Sheremetyevo, expanded greatly in 2010, has five terminals in two clusters. Terminals B (the old Sheremetyevo-1) and C constitute the northern cluster and provide mostly domestic and charter services. New Terminals D and E, along with the older Terminal F (the old Sheremetyevo-2, built for the 1980 Moscow Olympics), form the southern cluster and serve international flights, mainly the SkyTeam alliance, and Terminal D also serves domestic Aeroflot flights .

Domodedovo is a high-class modern airport with a single spacious terminal. It serves both domestic and international flights by most Russian and international companies, so you'd be better off choosing flights bound for it.

Vnukovo is a smaller airport and is generally operated by low-cost airlines. As of March 2012, it undergoes a major renovation with a construction of a new spacious terminal building.

There are airports in all large cities in Russia. Some international services can be found in: Novosibirsk, Sochi, Vladivostok, Kaliningrad, Ekaterinburg. International service to other destinations is much more limited.

Local airlines are listed in Get around.

Low-cost air-lines from Europe:

From Austria:

From Germany:

From Greece:

From Italy:

From Norway:

From Spain:

From the UK:

Cheaper ways to get to Moscow from the Middle East, India, South-East Asia and Australia:

From/via United Arab Emirates

From/via Qatar

Typical neoclassical grandiosity at the Krasnoyarsk Railway Station

By train

Russian Railways RZhD (РЖД) runs reliable services across dizzying distances. Eastern and Central Europe are well connected to Moscow and to a lesser extent Saint Petersburg. Moscow is also connected to some surprising destinations throughout Western Europe and Asia.

Except for the swish new carriages that run from Moscow to Nice and Paris, the international trains generally offer the same quality of compartment as the domestic trains (see Get around: By train).

The Russian word for railway station (Vokzal, Вокзал) is somehow related to Vauxhall Pleasure Gardens, a XIX century London attraction. Toilets in the vokzal are free if you have a ticket for an upcoming train (unlike in Vauxhall).


Belarus, Moldova and Ukraine are very well connected to Russia with many trains daily from cities throughout each country. Helsinki (Finland) has four high speed trains daily to St Petersburg and one overnight train to Moscow. Riga (Latvia), Vilnius (Lithuania) and Tallinn (Estonia) each have at least one overnight or daytime train to Moscow and St Petersburg.

Kaliningrad has a short summer-only train connection to Gdynia and Gdańsk in Poland. The trains from Kaliningrad to Moscow and St Petersburg pass through Vilnius in the afternoon.

Beyond Russia's immediate neighbours and former Soviet dominions, direct trains connect Moscow with Austria, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Monaco, Montenegro, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, and Switzerland. If you travel by train from Central Europe to Moscow, be aware that most train routes go through Belarus and citizens of most countries (including some that can enter Russia visa-free) need a Belarusian visa.

Western Europe has a different track gauge from Russia, Finland and the CIS so bogies must be exchanged when the train crosses into the ex-Soviet countries (usually Ukraine or Belarus). This adds a couple of hours to the long wait already encountered for immigration. You can stay on the train as the wheels are being changed so it won't disrupt your sleep too much.


Moscow is connected to all the former Soviet Central Asian countries: (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, & Uzbekistan) at least 2-3 times per week. Journeys are long (3.5–5 days). To the Caucasus, there is a service from Moscow to Baku, Azerbaijan (3 days); however, the Azerbaijan-Russia border is only open to CIS passport holders. There is also a service from Moscow to Sukhumi in the disputed territory of Abkhazia. The Trans-Siberian Railway spans the entire country and connects with Chinese cities such as Beijing and Harbin, as well as Mongolia's Ulaanbaatar. There is also a bi-weekly service from Moscow to Pyongyang, North Korea (essentially the Trans-Siberian plus a short link from Vladivostok to Pyongyang) but this line isn't open to Western tourists.

By car

Travelling in Russia by car can be difficult. Roads may be poorly marked, if marked at all, and poorly maintained, especially outside the cities and towns. Road numbers are not well marked, and direction signs are normally in Russian only. Car rental services are only starting to develop in major cities such as Moscow or Saint Petersburg and are expensive.

Crossing the border by car is a peculiar entertainment.

There's no doubt that car travel is the best way to see the country, but it is a risky enterprise which is recommended only for the brave and capable.

Most federal highways (marked as M-1, M-2 and so on) are surveilled by automated systems, but minor roads are patrolled by State Auto Inspection (GAI). GAI roadblocks are inside every federal district border (about every 200 km). It's very useful to have a detector for radar speed traps and a video recorder. A video record is your ultimate defence in all problem cases with GAI. It's a stereotype that GAI inspectors can be bribed with 10 or 20 US dollars; in 2005, corrupt inspectors asked about USD90 per hit.

Not all highways in Russia are free: on some highways, toll gates block the way, so the traveller may need RUB20-60 per toll (it's better to have some RUB10 coins).

Petrol in some regions may be extremely bad; it's always better to find any branded filling station.

Service is poor or expensive, but high prices do not always mean high quality. The countryside can be quite dangerous without experience and fluency in the Russian language.

If you're involved in a collision as the driver, the main rule is not to move your car and don't leave the scene of the accident until a GAI inspector draws an accident plan and you sign it. Any violation of this rule may cost you 15 days of freedom. All other questions should be directed to your insurance company.

It's possible to travel safely by car in Russia using a private licensed guide. Travelling independently is not recommended, especially for non-Russian speakers. Guides generally provide their own cars or vans and know the roads, the customs and the countryside, making it possible to see small towns and historic sites.

By bus

Sochi's Seaport

A few bus companies, most notably Eurolines, operate international coach services from a number of destinations to Moscow and Saint Petersburg. Tallinn, Helsinki, Riga, Vilnius, Warsaw and Berlin all have regular services to Russia.

By boat

Ferry services operate in the summer between Sochi and Turkey's Trabzon. In Vladivostok there is a scheduled ro-ro ferry to Busan and numerous lines to the different Japanese ports, however they are mostly oriented to the used Japanese car imports and less to tourism, there is also a weekly service in summer between Korsakov on Sakhalin and Wakkanai on the Japanese island Hokkaido. Cruise ships are also call to Russian ports frequently. There is a boat connection from Lappeenranta, Finland to Vyborg. There is now daily (overnight) service between Helsinki and St. Petersburg on St. Peter Line that does not require a visa for stays less than 3 days.

By bicycle

International cycling routes Eurovelo are two and include EV2 Capitals Route (from Ireland to Moscow) and EV10 Baltic Sea Cycle Route (Hansa circuit) interconnecting Saint-Petersburg with Estonia and Finland.

Get around

By train

Due to the immense size of the country, and the poor road safety, the best way to get around through the entire country quickly is by train. Russia has an extensive rail network linking nearly every city and town. For intercity travel, the train is generally the most convenient option for trips that can be covered overnight. Although accommodations may not be the best, Russian trains have efficient and courteous staff as well as timely departures and arrivals that would impress even a German. The train is an option for longer trips (many Russians continue to use it for trips of 2 days or more), but mainly if you appreciate the nuances and experience of train travel in Russia. For the complete Russian rail experience, the one-week Trans-Siberian Railway has no equal.

Russian trains are divided into types: Long-distance (дальнего следования DAHL'nyehvuh SLEHduhvahnyah) trains generally cover trips more than about 4 hours or 200 kilometers (120 miles). Take a look at the Russian long-distance rail timetable: . Shorter distances are covered by the commuter trains (пригородные PREEguhruhdnyyeh), which are popularly called электрички ehlehkTREECHkee. Most train stations (железнодорожный вокзал zhehlyehznohdohROHZHny vohgZAHL) have separate areas for selling tickets for these types.

Transportation of bicycle

Transportation of a bicycle in a carriage is permissible for one ticket under condition of being compactly folded/dismantled and clean. Usually the bike is taken off its wheels and pedals, put into a bag and stored on the upmost shelf in the Platzkart carriage. The other class carriages have less space or shelves and the bike should be more compact.

Sleeper cars

Winter travel on the famous Trans-Siberian Railway
Local train station in Udelnaya, a suburb north of St.Petersburg

Almost all long-distance trains are set up for overnight travel. There are several classes of accommodation:

Every car has its own attendant/conductor (provodnik or provodnitsa), which check your tickets at your boarding, provides you bedding, sells you tea or snacks and can lend you a mug and spoon for about 10 rubles. Do not be afraid, if the conductor takes your tickets, he gives it back at your destination station. At corridor you find a samovar with free hot water for making tea or soup. Most long-distance trains have dining cars.

Bottom-bunk berths (nizhnie – нижние) are slightly more comfortable than top-bunk berths (verhnie – верхние), because they have more place for baggage under them. There are also discounts sometime for top-bunk berths only (usually not in the tourist season and not in popular directions, which are from largest towns on Friday nights, and back on Sunday nights).

Train classes

Trains are classified according to their average speed:

Generally correspondence between numeration, speed and train types may be somewhat skewed, and trains from 'slower' category may actually be faster than trains from 'faster' category. Typically this occurs for various categories of rapid and express trains.

Service quality usually correspond to the class of train, but besides that, all-year trains usually have better service than seasonal trains, which are usually better than special dates only trains. Also according to their standards of service, some trains are promoted to firmennyy (фирменный) and given a proper brand and higher ticket price. The most distinguished trains use their special liveries.

Since 2011, dozens of local (prigorodny) trains are canceled each year due to lack of financing, and situation worsens each year. Cancellations occur everywhere over the country, except commuter zones of largest cities, such as Moscow, Saint-Petersburg, Ekaterinburg and Irkutsk. Having latest news on cancellations may be essential for trip planning. Typical cancellation traits: most cancellations occur in the start of the year, sometimes some trains are returned into timetable, if local budgets find funds to sponsor them; some trains are cut at region borders, even when there are no roads over the border to the previous train destination; other local trains got cut to 1 a day or several a week, often with timetable, not convenient for tourists.


Because virtually all long-distance trains are overnight, the long-distance tickets are bound to specified train. At Russian counter or travel agencies you'll get a reservation automatically, but if you buy an international ticket from some European non-CIS country, you should ask for reservation explicitly.

Ticket price depends on train class and car class, as well as on season (off-peak day tickets can cost 2/3 of peak day tickets). You can check the ticket price at, (only in Russian) or Russian Railways e-shop.

Most stations have a large room called a KASsovyi Zal (кассовый зал) where tickets are sold. Lines vary widely – some stations are much better organized than others nowadays, and it also depends on the season. If you find the lines unbearably long, it's usually not hard to find an agency that sells train tickets. Commission rates are generally not prohibitive. For instance, buying your ticket to Saint Petersburg from Moscow, it is much better to walk a flight of steps from the ordinary ticketing office – there are no queues upstairs and R140 is a small premium to pay for this service.

Alternatively you can buy an e-ticket online on Russian Railways website. You should take the printed e-ticket at station counter before boarding and pick up a regular ticket, or you can choose the so-called "electronic registration" on the site, after which you will have to print the e-ticket and come with it and with your passport right to the train.

There are many agencies selling Russian train tickets abroad – RealRussia , RussianTrains or RussianTrain . They have English-language website and can deliver the ticket by post to your home address, but prices are 30-50% higher.

Generally, buying tickets from Russia to any other CIS country is same as for domestic routes, because all CIS railway companies share a common reservation system. This does not apply for ticket from abroad to Russia – you have to buy the ticket at railway company of the departure country.

Travel tips

Travel time can vary from several hours to several days. Note that there are more types of train between the two capitals than between any other two cities in Russia. Apart from ordinary trains, there are rapid trains (Sapsan) that run by day only and cover the 650 km between Moscow and Saint Petersburg in 4 hours. Some of the overnight trains are quite luxurious — these include the traditional The Red Arrow service and the newer, fake-Czarist-era Nikolaevsky Express, complete with attendants in 19-century uniforms. Sheets, towels and prepacked breakfasts are included in all the better trains. Shared bathroom facilities are located at the end of the train car. There are special hatches that one may use to secure the door of the compartment from the inside during the night.

Moscow-Saint Petersburg Express Train takes 5 hours of travel and costs 2400 rubles. Trains are only slightly air conditioned. No one in the Moscow train station speaks any English, so if you are not familiar enough with Russian to purchase your train ticket in person, it is suggested that you purchase online or through your hotel concierge or travel agent before you depart. Also, note that all signage inside the train station is in Russian only, so finding your correct platform can be challenging. The dining car of the express train is nicely appointed with real table linens, and an impressive menu and wine list, but is 3 to 4 times more expensive than eating in the city before and after you travel.

Bus stop in Lipetsk

Trains stop at stations for long time, about 15–20 minutes. Check the timetable placed on door at the end of corridor. During stop you can buy various meals and drinks at platform from locals for pretty reasonable prices. Frequently, traders will walk through the cars between stops and sell everything from crockery to clothes to Lay's chips.

The commuter trains are mostly hard-seat train cars. You don't get a designated seat number — you just find space on a bench. These trains have a notorious reputation for being overcrowded, though this has declined somewhat. The trains make very frequent stops and are rather slow. For example, a 200 km trip to Vladimir takes about 3 h 30 min . They do (!) have toilets in the first and the last cars but it is going to be an unforgettable experience (use them in "emergency" cases only).

Tickets for commuter trains are sold in a separate room from the long-distance trains, and are sometimes sold from stalls located outside.

A few very popular routes, mostly between Moscow and nearby cities such as Vladimir, Yaroslavl, Tula, and others have an express commuter train that is considerably more comfortable. Your ticket will have a designated seat number and the seats are reasonably comfortable. The trains travel to their destination directly and are thus considerably faster.

Note that all long-distance trains in Russia run on Moscow time (which may be up to 7 hours off local time in the Far East).

By bus

Russian federal highways network

Most Russian cities have bus links to cities as far as 5–6 hours away or further. Though generally less comfortable than the train, buses sometimes are a better option time-wise and are worth looking into if the train timetables don't suit you. A small number of cities, notably Suzdal, are not served by train, and thus bus is the only option besides a car.

The Russian word for bus station is Avtovokzal (Ahv-tuh-vahg-ZAHL). Most cities have just one for long distance buses and the state buses depart from there. However, in Moscow and in some other Russian cities, a number of commercial buses are available, and they generally don't depart from the bus station. Quite often, you'll see commercial buses near train stations. Sometimes they run on schedules, though for popular routes (such as Moscow-Vladimir, Moscow/Yaroslavl, etc.) the buses simply wait to fill up. On these buses payment is usually to the driver.

Russian buses have luggage storage, but if it's an old Eastern-bloc bus, you may find your luggage wet at the end of the trip.


Apart from regular buses there are private minibuses called marshrutka (маршрутка). These emerged after the fall of the Soviet Union as an alternative to the moribund public transport system. Legally, they may be licensed as either taxis or buses. They have fixed routes, but usually no timetables and no regular stations. The official designation for them is Route Taxi, (Russian: marshrutnoye taxi, Ukrainian: marshrutne taxi), hence the colloquial marshrutka).

To board one of these, stop at the roadside and wave a hand, if you are lucky and the minibus isn't full, it will stop. In a city, it will stop anyway and offer you an option to stand in the aisle or even stand in some corner bending over sitting passengers. This is neither legal nor convenient, but very common and acceptable. You can arrange with the driver to stop at your destination. Normally, you just shout "Stop here, please", and marshrutka will stop pretty much anywhere, even in the middle of the traffic without moving to the side of the road. At main stops the driver may wait and collect more passengers. The waiting time is unpredictable and depends on the schedule, number of passengers, competing buses, etc. There are no tickets, you pay the driver directly. He may give you a receipt, but you have to ask for it explicitly.

Marshrutkas ride both in the countryside (in this case they are more likely to have timetables) and as city transport. Sometimes they look like regular buses, which makes them hardly distinguishable from official buses. Moreover, on long-distance routes you have an option of reserving a place by phone and even buying a ticket in advance. The system is very haphazard and organized in the most odd manner. It is highly advisable to check details about particular route with drivers or at least with locals who should know the current situation in their city. In cities, never rely on the route numbers. Sometimes they match those of the official public transport, but sometimes they don't.

By plane

The tremendous distances of Russia make plane travel highly desirable if you plan to travel to some of Russia's more far-flung attractions. It's worth considering for any destination that is farther than an overnight train ride. Travelling across Russia by train can sound awfully romantic, but it's also time-consuming and rather monotonous. Nearly every major destination of interest has an airport nearby. The great majority of domestic flights are to/from Moscow, but other services exist.

The Russian domestic airline industry had an abominable reputation in the 90s due to uncertain safety records, unreliable timetables, terrible service, uncomfortable airplanes, and substandard airports. Substantial improvements have been made, however. Plane travel in Russia is unlikely to be the highlight of your trip but it has become tolerable.

Getting around via reindeer sledge in Nenetsia

Many of these airlines (apart from Transaero, which started as an independent operation) were formed out of the onetime-Aeroflot operation at their home city from Soviet times when the old Aeroflot was broken up.

In March 2009, Rosaviation (federal aviation regulator) has published stats on average delays of departure in 2008, broken down by domestic airline:

For remote locations, general aviation can be the fastest option.

By boat

In the summer cruise boats are frequent on the rivers in European Russia and interconnect Kazan with Volgograd, Moscow with Saint-Petersburg and Astrakhan while journeys across the Volga cities being the most popular ones. Lakes Ladoga and Onega in the Northern Russia are also operated by cruise companies.

By thumb

Russia has a very lively hitchhiking culture, with many hitchhiking clubs, there is even an Academy of Hitchhiking. There are many competitions. Despite horror stories about bad things happening in Russia, it is relatively safe to hitchhike, especially in the countryside. In some regions Russians expect a little bit of money for a ride.


See also: Russian phrasebook

Russian is the lingua franca: across Russia. The language is a member of the East Slavic language family, and closely related to Ukrainian and Belarusian. Other Slavic languages such as Bulgarian, Croatian, Czech are not mutually intelligible, but still share a slight similarity. Russian is considered one of the most difficult languages for an English speaker to learn, mostly because of a very complicated grammar. You will not learn the language in a short time; concentrate on learning some key "courtesy" phrases, and the Cyrillic alphabet (e.g. "ресторан" spells "restoran" in the Roman alphabet, which means "restaurant") so you have a chance to recognize street names, labels and public signs. Familiarizing yourself with Cyrillic is immensely helpful, not only for Russia but for a number of other countries as well, and not very difficult.

Learning Russian is quite hard going. The script, Cyrillic, uses many letters of the Latin alphabet but assigns many of them different sounds. The language employs three grammatical genders (masculine, feminine and neuter), six grammatical cases, and free-fall stress, all of which conspire to make it a difficult prospect for the native English speaker.

Trinity Monastery in Sergiev Posad—the spiritual home of the Russian Orthodox Church

English is becoming a requirement in the business world, and many Russians in the cities (particularly Moscow or St. Petersburg but also elsewhere) know enough English to communicate. Elsewhere English is generally nonexistent, so take a phrase book and be prepared for slow communication with a lot of interpretive gestures.

Russia has hundreds of languages and claims to support most of them. Soviet linguists documented them in the first few decades of the USSR and made sure they were given Cyrillic writing systems (except Karelian, Veps, Ingrian, Votic and Ter Sami). Some were made local co-official languages. Southern Russia is lined with Turkic, Mongolian, and Tungusic language; the northern with Finnic and Samoyed tongues. The southwest corner has a variety of Caucasian languages; the northeast has a few Chukotko-Kamchatkan languages. However, a smattering of Russian is will greatly aid travellers no matter where they are.

The Russian Orthodox religion is one of the oldest branches of Christianity in the world and continues to have a very large following, despite having been repressed during the communist period. The language spoken in Russian Orthodox church services is Old Church Slavonic, which differs considerably from modern Russian.


Russia is immense, and extraordinarily long on attractions for visitors, although many lie in the hard-to-reach stretches of the planet's most remote lands. The best known sights are in and around the nation's principal cities of Moscow and Saint Petersburg.

Historical attractions

Fortress at Derbent

Russia's history is the number one reason why tourists come to this country, following the draw of its fascinating, sometimes surreal, oftentimes brutal, and always consequential national saga.

Early history

Derbent, in the Caucasian Republic of Dagestan, is Russia's most ancient city, dating back 5,000 years. Home to the legendary Gates of Alexander, the walled fortress-city, alternately controlled by Caucasian Albania, Persian empires, and the Mongols (until its eighteenth century conquest by the Russian Empire) was for 1500 years the key to controlling trade between Western Russia and the Middle East. Other ancient peoples of Russia left less evidence of their civilization, but you can find traces of the Kurgan people of the Urals, in particular the ruined pagan shrines and burial mounds around the old capital of Tobolsk and throughout the Republic of Khakassia.

Of early Russia's city states, one of the best preserved and most interesting include Staraya Ladoga, regarded as the nation's first capital, established by the Viking Rurik, to whom the first line of Tsars traced their lineage. Novgorod, founded in 859, was the most important city of Kievan Rus in modern Russia (with Kiev itself in modern day Ukraine), and home to Russia's first kremlin.

Early Medieval Russia saw two major civilizations, that of the independent Novgorod Republic and the Mongol Empire, which dominated the Russian principalities of former Vladimir-Suzdal (whose initial capital of Vladimir retains an excellent collection of twelfth century monuments and kremlin) and Kievan Rus. While the Mongols left mostly devastation of historical sites in their wake, the wealthy trading nation to the north developed grand cities at the capital of Novgorod, as well as Staraya Ladoga, Pskov, and Oreshek (modern day Shlisselburg), all of which have extant medieval kremlins and a multitude of beautiful early Russian Orthodox churches filled with medieval ecclesiastical frescoes.

As Mongol power waned, the Grand Duchy of Moscow rose to power, and particularly under the later reign of Ivan the Terrible, consolidated power in all of Western Russia, including the conquest of the Kazan Khanate (and establishing another grand citadel there) and concentrated power in Moscow, building its kremlin, St Basil's Cathedral, and several other of Russia's best known historical sites. The cities of the Golden Ring surrounding Moscow likewise saw significant construction during this period. A really neat off-the-beaten-path destination also rose to prominence in the extreme north of the country—the Solovetsky Monastery-fortress on the islands of the White Sea, which served as a bulwark against Swedish naval incursions.

Imperial history

The Grand Cascade in Peterhof
See also: Russian Empire

Ivan the Terrible's reign ended in tragedy, the Time of Troubles, which only saw destruction and ruin, and you will find little evidence of civilizational development until the establishment of the Romanov Dynasty in the early seventeenth century. Peter the Great, after having consolidated power, began the construction of his entirely new city of Saint Petersburg on the Gulf of Finland, the Window to the West. Saint Petersburg from its foundation through the neoclassical period became one of the world's most magically beautiful cities, and the list of must-see attractions is far too long to be discussed here. The surrounding summer palaces at Peterhof, Pavlovsk, and Pushkin are also unbelievably opulent attractions.

The Russian Revolution was one of the twentieth century's defining moments, and history buffs will find much to see in Saint Petersburg. The two best known sites are found at the Winter Palace, which the communists stormed to depose Tsar Nicolas II, and the beautiful Peter and Paul Fortress on the Neva River, which housed numerous revolutionary luminaries in its cold, hopeless prison. For those interested in the grisly end of the Romanov family of Nicholas II, perhaps inspired by the story of Anastasia, look no further than the Church on the Blood in Yekaterinburg, built on the spot of his family's execution. Moscow, on the other hand, has the most famous monument from the revolutionary period—Lenin's himself, with his embalmed body on display in Red Square.

Soviet history

See also: Soviet Union

The Soviet Era saw a drastic change in Russian history, and the development of a virtually brand new civilization. Mass industrialization programs came with a new aesthetic ethos which emphasized functionality (combined with grandiosity). The enormous constructivist buildings and statues of the twentieth century are often derided as ugly monstrosities, but they are hardly boring (whereas the industrial complexes polluting cities from the Belarussian border to the Pacific are genuine eyesores).

Both World War II and Stalin's reign of terror made their presence felt greatly upon Russia's cultural heritage. The bombings involved in the former virtually wiped out anything of historical interest in Russia's extreme west (the Chernozemye region) and damaged much more throughout European Russia. It did, however, lead to the construction of monuments to the war throughout the entire country. For military buffs, a visit to Mamaev Kurgan, the museum complex at Volgograd (former Stalingrad) is an excellent destination. Kursk, for its enormous tank battle, and Saint Petersburg, site of the Siege of Leningrad, make interesting destinations.

The Motherland Calls, looming over the Battlefield of Stalingrad, atop Mamayev Kurgan

Maybe the saddest of the Soviet legacies is the network of prison camps known as the Gulag Archipelago. The term Archipelago really does not capture the scope of suffering across 10,000 kilometers of cold steppe. Perhaps the most interesting sites for those interested in this legacy are on the Solovetsky Islands in the White Sea, and the devastatingly bleak Kolyma gulag system of Magadan Oblast. If you were hoping to see where Alexandr Solzhenitsyn was imprisoned, you'll have to travel beyond the Russian borders to Ekibastuz in Kazakhstan.

Cultural sights

Russia has several of the world's greatest museums, particularly in the field of the visual arts. The Hermitage Museum in Saint Petersburg is the true star, with an enormous collection amassed first by the wealthy tsars (particularly by its founder, Catherine the Great) and later by the Soviets and the Red Army (which seized enormous treasure from the Nazis, who in turn had seized their bounty from their wars around the globe). Equally impressive is the edifice housing the collection on display, the magnificent Winter Palace of the Romanov Dynasty. Saint Petersburg's often overlooked Russian Museum should also be a priority, as it has the country's second best collection of purely Russian art, from icons of the tenth century on through the modern movements, in all of which revolutionary Russia led the charge ahead of the rest of the world. Moscow's art museums, only slightly less well known, include the Tretyakov Gallery (the premiere collection of Russian art) and the Pushkin Museum of Western Art.

Other museum exhibitions certainly worth seeking out are the collections of antiquities in Saint Petersburg and Moscow, particularly at the Hermitage Museum, and the Armory in the Moscow Kremlin. For military buffs, Russian military museums are often fantastic, truly best-in-the-world, regardless of whether you are at one of the main ones in the Moscow—the Central Armed Forces Museum, Kubinka Tank Museum, Central Air Force Museum, Museum of the Great Patriotic War (WWII), or way off in the provinces. The other category in which Russian museums outshine the rest of the world would be within the literary and musical spheres. Nary a town visited, if only for a day, by Alexander Pushkin is without some small museum dedicated to his life and works. The best of the big city museums include the Bulgakov Museum in Moscow and the Anna Akhmatova, Pushkin, and Dostoevsky museums in Saint Petersburg. Great adventures await in quieter parts of the country, at Dostoevsky's summer house in Staraya Russa, Tolstoy's "inaccessible literary stronghold" at Yasnaya Polyana, Chekhov's country estate at Melikhovo, Tchaikovsky's house in Klin or remote hometown of Votkinsk in Udmurtia, Rakhmaninov's summer home in Ivanovka, Pushkin's estate at Pushkinskie Gory, or Turgenev's country estate at Spasskoe-Lutovinovo near Mtsensk. The best museums are in the countryside. For classical music lovers, the apartment museums of various nineteenth and century composers in Saint Petersburg are worth more than just nostalgic wanderings—they often have small performances by incredible musicians.

Kazan's Qolşärif Mosque

All tourists in Russia find themselves looking at a lot of churches. Ecclesiastical architecture is a significant source of pride among Russians, and the onion dome is without question a preeminent national symbol. The twentieth century, sadly, saw cultural vandalism in the destruction of said architecture on an unprecedented scale. But the immense number of beautiful old monasteries and churches ensured that an enormous collection remains. The best known, as usual, are in Saint Petersburg and Moscow, in particular the old baroque Church on the Spilled Blood, Alexander Nevsky Lavra, and the monumental Kazan and Saint Isaac's Cathedrals in the former, and Saint Basil's Cathedral and the massive Church of the Annunciation in the latter. The spiritual home of the Russian Orthodox Church is to be found at the Trinity Lavra of St. Sergius in Sergiev Posad on the Golden Ring circuit (lavra is the designation given to the most important monasteries, of which there are only two in the country), although the physical headquarters of the Church is at Danilov Monastery in Moscow. Kirillo-Belozersky Monastery in Vologda Oblast is often considered Russia's second most important (and is a neat way to get off the beaten track). Other particularly famous churches and monasteries are to be found at Saint Sophia's Cathedral in Novgorod, the Cathedral of the Assumption in Vladimir, the fascinating Old Cathedral of Königsberg (home to Immanuel Kant's tomb) in Kaliningrad, Novodevichy Convent in Moscow, Optina Putsin (the basis for Father Zossima's monastery in The Brothers Karamazov), and Volokolamsk Monastery in West Moscow Oblast. Kizhi Pogost on Lake Onega and Valaam Monastery on Lake Ladoga are also popular sites, especially with those cruising between Saint Petersburg and Moscow.

Ecclesiastical architecture does not, however, end with the Russian Orthodox Church—Russia also has a wealth of Islamic and Buddhist architecture. The nation's most important mosques are the Qolşärif Mosque in Kazan (the largest mosque in Europe) and the Blue Mosque in Saint Petersburg (originally the largest mosque in Europe!). Notably absent from that list is the Moscow Cathedral Mosque, which was formerly considered the principal mosque in the country, but was very controversially demolished in 2011. Russia's most prominent Buddhist temples are in both Kalmykia—Europe's lone Buddhist republic, and the areas closer to Mongolia, especially around Ulan Ude in Buryatia and Kyzyl, Tuva.

Natural attractions

While the distances are great between them, Russia's natural wonders are impressive and worth seeking out for nature lovers. The best known destinations are far to the east in Siberia, with Lake Baikal known as its "jewel." At the extreme eastern end of Russia, nearly all the way to Japan and Alaska, is wild Kamchatka, where you will find the Valley of the Geisers, lakes of acid, volcanoes, and grizzlies galore.

Yugyd Va National Park, in the Komi Virgin Forests

Other highlights of the Far East include the idyllic (if kind of cold) Kuril Islands to the south of Kamchatka, whale watching off the coast of arctic Wrangel Island, the remote Sikhote-Alin mountain range, home to the Amur Tiger, and beautiful Sakhalin. The nature reserves throughout these parts are spectacular as well, but all will require permits in advance and specialized tours.

The northern half of Russia stretching thousands of miles from the Komi Republic through Kamchatka is basically empty wilderness, mostly mountainous, and always beautiful. Getting to these areas is problematic, as most are not served by any roads, infrastructure, or really anything else. Russia's great north-south rivers are the main arteries for anyone moving through the area: the Pechora, Ob, Yenisey, Lena, and Kolyma. Beyond that, expect to be in canoes, helicopters, and military issue jeeps will be the only way of getting around, and you'll likely want to go with a guide.

Russia's other mountainous territory is in its extreme south, in the Northern Caucasus. There you will find Europe's tallest mountains, which tower in height over the Alps, including mighty Elbrus. Favorite Russian resorts in the area include those at Sochi (which will host the next Winter Olympic Games) and Dombai. As you go further east in the North Caucasus, the landscapes become ever more dramatic, from the lush forested gorges and snow capped peaks of Chechnya to the stark desert mountains of Dagestan, sloping downwards to the Caspian Sea.

Throughout the entire country, there are over a hundred National Parks and Nature Reserves (zapovedniki). The former are open to the public, and considerably more wild and undeveloped than you would find in, say, the United States. The latter are preserved principally for scientific research and are often not possible to visit. Permits are issued for certain reserves, but only through licensed tour operators. If you have the opportunity, though, take it! Some of the most spectacular parks are in the aforementioned Kamchatka, but also in the Urals, particularly in the Altai Mountains (Altai Republic and Altai Krai).



The lavish Mariinsky Theatre in Saint Petersburg

Outdoor life

Swan Lake, quite possibly performed weekly in Russia!

The association between Russia and its two biggest metropolises, Moscow and St Petersburg, is strong in the minds of tourists, but given its vast expanses and low population density, Russia is a nature lovers paradise as well. Russia has a network of exceptional natural areas, comprising 35 National Parks and 100 Nature Reserves (zapovednik) covering a total land mass larger than Germany. List of Russian Nature Reserves (in Russian) one can find here

Some Russian Nature Reserves on the internet:

Provided your paperwork is in order, you may visit these areas independently. For those wishing to seek guidance, there are travel agencies specializing in ecotourism in Russia such as:

Whitewater rafting



The Moscow GUM—one of the world's most beautiful shopping malls, right on Red Square

Throughout its history Russia has had various versions of the ruble (рубль), which is divided into 100 kopeks (копеек). The latest manifestation, RUB (replacing the RUR) was introduced in 1998 (although all notes and first issues of coins bear the year 1997). All pre-1998 currency is obsolete. The ruble is sometimes symbolised using ₽.

Coins are issued in 1, 5, 10, and 50 kopek and RUB1, RUB2, RUB5 and RUB10 denominations. Banknotes come in RUB10, RUB50, RUB100, RUB500, RUB1000 and RUB5000 banknotes. The 5 ruble note is no longer issued or found in general circulation. The 10 ruble note ceased being printed in 2010 and will suffer the same fate. Both remain legal tender. Kopeks are generally useless, with most prices given to the nearest ruble. The 1 and 5 kopek coins are especially useless: even places that quote prices in non whole rubles will round to the nearest 10 kopeks. The ruble has been fairly stable in recent years (at least up until the Ukraine crisis in August 2014), hovering around 38 to the US dollar and about 49 to the euro.

All banknotes have special marks (dots and lines in relief) to aid the blind in distinguishing values.

Russian law forbids payments other than in rubles.

Travellers Cheques are generally inconvenient (only some banks, such as Sberbank, will cash even American Express - though they do it without commission). So bring enough cash to last you for a few days, or rely on ATMs and credit card transactions.

Currency exchange offices (called bureaus in Saint Petersburg) are common throughout Russia in banks and, in the larger cities, small currency exchange bureaus. Banks tend to offer slightly worse rates but are more trustworthy. Hotels generally offer much worse rates but could be useful in an emergency. You need to show your passport to change money at a bank and fill in copious amounts of time wasting forms.

Be sure to take your time to count how much money you got — different ways are sometimes used to trick the customer, including better rates, prominently displayed, for large transactions and worse rates, difficult to find, for small transactions.

Branches of large banks can be found in any major city. Sberbank has a presence even in unexpectedly small villages.

Dollars and euros are generally better bought outside Russia and then swapped to rubles once in Russia as changing other currencies, while possible, will not attract great rates. You can check the rates that are being traded in Moscow online.

You will have an easier time changing clean, new banknotes. US dollars should be the most recent issue, although changing older versions shouldn't be impossible.

Don't change money on the street. Unlike during Soviet times, there is no advantage to dealing with an unofficial vendor. There are several advanced street exchange scams — better not to give them a chance.

ATMs, called bankomats, are common in large cities and can generally be found in smaller cities and towns. Though some may not accept foreign cards. English language interface is available. Some may also dispense US dollars. Russian ATMs will often limit withdrawals to about USD1,000 per day. Big hotels are good places to find them.

In Moscow and Saint Petersburg more and more shops, restaurants, and services take credit cards. Visa/MasterCard are more accepted than American Express; Discover, Diners Club and other cards are rarely accepted. Most upmarket establishments will accept credit cards, but beyond these it is pure chance.

Museums and sightseeing places take only cash, no credit cards. Have plenty of cash on hand each day to cover entrance fees, photographic fees (museums charge a fee for cameras and video recorders), tours, souvenirs, meals and transportation.

Train Stations may accept plastic, even outside the big cities, be sure to ask as it won't always be obvious. Otherwise take plenty of cash. ATM machines at train station are popular and often out of cash, so stock up before going to the train station.

Like anywhere in the world, it's better to avoid street ATMs (or at least to be very careful), as sometimes swindlers attach spy devices to them, to get your PIN and card details; the safest option is the ATMs in hotels, banks or big shopping centres.


While tipping was traditionally frowned upon in Russia it has been emerging after the fall of communism. Tipping is not necessary, except in fancier restaurants (especially in Moscow). In such cases, a tip exceeding 10% would be unusual. Some restaurants may include service into the amount, but that is very rare; if a service charge is included then a tip is not expected. Round up when paying your bill at a restaurant, particularly if it happens to be more or less like 10% above the total, and it will be interpreted as a tip. If the service was particularly bad and you don't want to leave a tip, ask for your change.

Gratuity amounts may vary as many establishments do not accept credit cards. Don't be surprised to find your bill rounded off to the nearest whole number.

Tipping is not considered customary for taxis, in fact, you should negotiate and settle upon your fare before you get in the taxi. It is also customary to leave hotel workers, coat check attendants, drivers and hotel housekeeping staff a generous tip. Drivers and tour guides are usually tipped up to $10 (approximately £6.37) and housekeeping staff are tipped about $1 (approximately 63p) to $2 (approximately £1.27) daily, which is usually left on the bedside table or in an ashtray.


In general, Russian-made items are cheap, but products imported from the West are often expensive.


There are a number of cheap food/goods chains.


Bliny buckwheat pancakes with salmon roe (ikra), sour cream (smetana) and chopped onion
See also: Russian cuisine

Russian cuisine derives its rich and varied character from the vast and multicultural expanse of Russia. Its foundations were laid by the peasant food of the rural population in an often harsh climate, with a combination of plentiful fish, poultry, game, mushrooms, berries, and honey. Crops of rye, wheat, buckwheat, barley, and millet provided the ingredients for a plethora of breads, pancakes, cereals, kvass, beer, and vodka. Flavourful soups and stews centred on seasonal or storable produce, fish, and meats. This wholly native food remained the staples for the vast majority of Russians well into the 20th century. Lying on the northern reaches of the ancient Silk Road, as well as Russia's proximity to the Caucasus, Persia, and the Ottoman Empire has provided an inescapable Eastern character to its cooking methods (not so much in European Russia but distinguishable in the North Caucasus). Russia's renowned caviar is easily obtained, however prices can exceed the expenses of your entire trip. Dishes such as beef Stroganov and chicken kiev, from the pre-revolutionary era are available but mainly aimed at tourists as they lost their status and visibility during Soviet times. Russian specialities include:

Pelmeni meat dumplings with three dipping sauces

Both Saint Petersburg and Moscow offer sophisticated, world class dining and a wide variety of cuisines including Japanese, Tibetan and Italian. They are also excellent cities to sample some of the best cuisines of the former Soviet Union (e.g., Georgian and Uzbek). It is also possible to eat well and cheaply there without resorting to the many western fast food chains that have opened up. Russians have their own versions of fast food restaurants which range from cafeteria style serving comfort foods to streetside kiosks cooking up blinis, shawerma/gyros, piroshki/belyashi, stuffed potatoes, etc. Although their menus may not be in English, it is fairly easy to point to what is wanted — or at a picture of it, not unlike at western fast food restaurants. A small Russian dictionary will be useful at non- touristy restaurants offering table service where staff members will not speak English and the menus will be entirely in Cyrillic, but prices are very reasonable. Russian meat soups and meat pies are excellent.

It is better not to drink the tap water in Russia and to avoid using ice in drinks, however bottled water, kvass, limonad, and Coca Cola are available everywhere food is served.

Stylish cafes serving cappuccino, espresso, toasted sandwiches, rich cakes and pastries are popping up all over Saint Petersburg and Moscow. Some do double duty as wine bars, others are also internet cafes.

Unlike the United States, cafes in Russia (кафе) serve not only drinks, but also a full range of meals (typically cooked in advance—unlike restaurants where part or whole cooking cycle is performed after you make an order).

Tipping in restaurants

Restaurant staff in Russia are not as dependent on tips as in the United States, but tipping is still encouraged, even if it is not common among the locals. A tip of 10% of the total bill, usually paid by rounding up the invoice amount, would be reasonably generous. Don't tip in cafeteria-like settings, where you travel along the counter with a tray and pay at the cash register. Throw a couple of 10-ruble coins (or the older notes) into the tip jar for baristas. There is no way to leave a tip on your credit card so keep enough small bills in your wallet to hand to the staff.


Vodka, imported liquors (rum, gin, etc.), international soft-drinks (Pepsi, Coca- Cola, Fanta, etc.), local soft drinks (Tarhun, Buratino, Baikal, etc.), distilled water, kvas (sour-sweet non-alcoholic naturally carbonized drink made from fermented dark bread) and mors (traditional wild berry drink).

Beer (пиво) is cheap in Russia and the varieties are endless of both Russian and international brands. It is found for sale at any street vendor (warm) or stall (varies) in the centre of any city and costs (costs double and triple the closer you are to the centre) from about RUB17 (about USD0.50) to RUB130 for a 0.5 L bottle or can. "Small" bottles and cans (0.33 L and abount) are also widely sold, and there are also plastic bottles of 1, 1.5, 2 litres or even more, similar to those in which soft carbonated drinks are usually sold — many cheaper beers are sold that way and, being even cheaper due to large volume, are quite popular, despite some people say it can have a "plastic" taste. Corner stores/cafés, selling draft beer (highly recommended) also exist, but you have to seek them out. The highest prices (especially in the bars and restaurants) are traditionally in Moscow; Saint-Petersburg, on the other hand, is known for the cheaper and often better beers. Smaller cities and towns generally have similar prices if bought in the shop, but significantly lower ones in the bars and street cafes. Popular local brands of beer are Baltika, Stary Mel'nik, Bochkareff, Zolotaya Bochka, Tin'koff and many others. Locally made (mainly except some Czech and possibly some other European beers — you won't miss these, the price of a "local" Czech beer from the same shelf will be quite different) international trademarks like Holsten, Carlsberg, etc. are also widely available, but their quality doesn't differ so much from local beers. Soft drinks usually start from RUB20-30 (yes, same or even more expensive than an average local beer in a same shop) and can cost up to RUB60 or more in the Moscow center for a 0.5 L plastic bottle or 0.33 L can.

Cheap beer (less than RUB50 per 0.5 L) may not contain natural ingredients at all and can cause an allergic reaction.

High quality and popular domestic vodkas on the table: Russian Standard and Zelyonaya Marka

Street vendors usually operate mainly in tourist- and local-frequented areas, and many of them (especially those who walk around without a stall) are working without a license, usually paying some kind of a bribe to local police. Their beer, however, is usually OK, as it was just bought in a nearby shop. In the less weekend-oriented locations, large booths ("lar'ki" or "palatki", singular: "laryok" ("stall") or "palatka" (literally, "tent")) can be found everywhere, especially near metro stations and bus stops. They sell soft drinks, beer, and "cocktails" (basically a cheap soft drink mixed with alcohol, a bad hangover is guaranteed from the cheaper ones. Many of these alcohol cocktails contain taurine and large doses of caffeine and are popular with the nightlife fans) and their prices, while still not high, are often 20-40% more than those in supermarkets. The chain supermarkets (excluding some "elite" ones) and malls (mostly on bigger cities' outskirts) are usually the cheapest option for buying drinks (for food, the local markets in the smaller cities, but not in Moscow, are often cheaper). Staff of all of these (maybe except in some supermarkets, if you're lucky) do not speak or, at the best, speak very basic English even in Moscow. And furthermore, staff of many markets in Moscow and other large cities speak very basic Russian (its mainly migrants from Middle Asia).

Mixed alcoholic beverages as well as beers at nightclubs and bars are extremely expensive and are served without ice, with the mix (for example, coke) and alcohol charged for separately. Bringing your own is neither encouraged nor allowed, and some (usually dance-all-night venues oriented to the young crowd) places in Moscow even can take some measures to prevent customers from drinking outside (like a face-control who may refuse an entry on return, or the need to pay entry fee again after going out), or even from drinking the tap water instead of overpriced soft drinks by leaving only hot water available in the lavatories. Any illegal drugs are best avoided by the people not accustomed to the country — the enforcement is, in practice, focused on collecting more bribes from those buying and taking, rather than on busting drug-dealers, the people selling recreational illegal drugs in the clubs are too often linked with (or watched by) police; plain-clothes policemen know and frequently visit the venues where drugs are popular, and you will likely end up in a lot of problems with notoriously corrupt Russian police and probably paying multi-thousand-dollar (if not worse) bribe to get out, if you'll get caught. It really doesn't worth the risk here.

Wines (вино) from Georgia, Crimea and Moldova are quite popular (although all products from Georgia are illegal 2005). In Moscow and Saint Petersburg, most restaurants have a selection of European wines—generally at a high price. Please note that Russians prefer sweet wine as opposed to dry. French Chablis is widely available at restaurants and is of good quality. The Chablis runs about 240 rubles per glass. All white wines are served room temperature unless you are at an international hotel that caters to Westerners.

Soviet champagne (Советское Шампанское, Sovetskoye Shampanskoye) or, more politically correctly, just sparkling wine (Игристые вина, Igristie vina) is also served everywhere in the former Soviet Union at a reasonable price. The quality can be quite good but syrupy-sweet to Western tastes, as by far the most common variety is polusladkoye (semi-sweet), similar to Asti Spumanti, but the better brands also come in polusukhoe (semi-dry) and sukhoe (dry) varieties. Brut also exists but is rare. The original producer was Abrau-Dyurso, but Ukrainian brands like Odessa and Krymskoe, are also very popular. Among quality Russian brands, the best brands originate from the southern regions where grapes are widely grown. One of a quality Russian brands is the historic Abrau-Dyurso (RUB200-700 for a bottle in the supermarket depending on variety); Tsimlyanskoe (RUB150-250) is also popular. The quality of the cheapest ones (from RUB85-120, depending on where you buy) varies, with some local Moscow and St. Petersburg brands (produced out of Crimean and southern Russian grapes) being quite good. You can buy if you do want to have a try while not paying much, but it's wiser to stick to something better.

How it should be: a Soviet-made bochka dispensing kvass on a hot day in Kaliningrad

Good genuine kvass (квас) is hard to find in the cities, there are only some chances in rural areas—but even there, only by a recommendation. Whatever is sold in supermarkets as kvass is merely an imitation, and is pretty far from a real product. What makes genuine kvass different includes: limited lifetime (normally 1 week), contains some alcohol (0.7% to 2.6% vol) and should be stored in a fridge. Genuine kvass can be bought in 0.2 L cups, which may be a good idea to sample it before buying in quantity.

In warm periods, genuine kvass can be bought from huge metal barrels on trailers (bochkas). Originally a symbol of soviet summertime, bochkas became rare after 1991. Soviet nostalgia and these trailers' no-nonsense good functionality have given them a revival in recent years. There are also modern, plastic, stationary, upright barrel-like dispensers but these may not sell the genuine article. Towards the end of an especially hot day, avoid genuine kvass from bochkas as it may have soured.

Medovukha (медовуха) aka mead, the ancient drink brewed from many a century ago by most Europeans was widespread among ancient Russians. It has semi-sweet taste based on fermented honey and contains 10-16% of alcohol. You may see it sold in bottles or poured in cups in fast-food outlets and shops.

Tea (чай) is drunk widely in Russia. Most Russians drink black tea with either sugar, lemon, honey or jam.


Gleaming towers, symbols of Volga natural gas wealth, in Samara

In most cities, quality hotels are really scarce: most were built in Soviet times decades ago and are recently renovated in decor, but rarely in service and attitude. Even for a local, it's quite a problem to find a good hotel without a recommendation from a trusted person. For the same reason, it may be really hard to find a hotel during mass tourist-oriented events like StPete anniversary.

Hotels in Russia may be quite expensive in metropolises and touristy areas. If you do speak a bit of Russian and are not entirely culture shocked, it is much smarter to seek out and rent a room in a private residence. Most Russians are looking to make extra money and, having space to spare, will rent it out to a tourist gladly. Native Moscovites or residents of Saint Petersburg would rather rent out to tourists than their own countrymen: foreigners are considered more trustworthy and orderly. Expect to pay 60-70 USD a night (usually with breakfast prepared by your host), and the accommodations will certainly be very clean and proper if not modern. When it comes to home/family life, Russian culture is very warm and inviting.

Another useful option is short-term apartment rental offered by small companies or individuals. This means that certain flats in regular living buildings are permanently rented out on a daily basis. The flats may differ in their location and quality (from old-fashioned to recently renovated), but in any case you get a one- or two-room apartment with own kitchen, toilet, and bath. Additionally, the hosts provide bed linen as well as cups, plates, and other kitchen equipment. The apartment rental provides great autonomy and flexibility (e.g., there is no strict check-out time). On the other hand, you do not get certain hotel facilities, such as breakfast, laundry service, etc. The price for the daily apartment rental normally does not exceed the price for the hotel of similar quality, so it is a very useful options, especially in large cities. The negotiations are usually quite official: the host collects the data from your ID, while you get a bill and a rental agreement.

A new phenomenon has been the development of "mini-hotels" in large Russian cities. Such hotels usually (but not necessarily!) provide clean modern rooms with private baths at far lower costs than conventional large hotels, approximately $60 vs. well over $150. These small hotels are located within existing apartment buildings and include one, two, or more floors located a story or two above street level. They also often serve breakfast. Saint Petersburg has quite a few with more opening all of the time and some are appearing in Moscow.

Couchsurfing is very popular in Russian cities.


Russia has a long-standing tradition in high-quality education for all citizens. It also has one of the best mass-education systems in the world, with excellent results at international educational competitions.

One of the great attractions of education in Russia is the cost, especially when compared to the quality. Degree study tuition can range from $2,000 to $8,000 per year, with other costs (room & board, books, etc.) ranging from $1,500 to $5,000 per year, depending on location and spending habits.

The academic year lasts from September 1st to mid June everywhere, with long summer vacations from July 1st to August 31st. The year is divided at "autumn semester"(from 1st September to 25th January) and "spring semester" (from February to June)

Several universities and private schools offer Russian language courses with either individual or group tuition.

Stay safe

WARNING: Travelling to the North Caucasus is strongly not advised, as the current situation there is extremely dangerous, due to ongoing conflict within the region.

Largely because of the transition from state socialism to market capitalism, Russia did experience a rise in criminal activity during the 1990s. As those who controlled capital through the state had to reconfigure their business operations towards a free enterprise rationality, profiteering and scams have increased. The truth is that crime was greatly exaggerated in the media, and for the average tourist Moscow, Saint Petersburg and the rest of Russia are actually just as safe as most major European cities. This, however, is not always the case.


Alas, there is a whole Lada police corruption in Russia.

Historically very high, the crime rate has fallen dramatically since the breakup of the Soviet Union, and is moderate. Even though the crime issues are continuing to drop, assault, robbery, or pickpocketing are the most common crimes - more common in underground walkways, the subway, overnight trains, train stations, airports, markets, tourist attractions, and restaurants. Foreigners who have been drinking alcohol are especially vulnerable to assault and robbery in or around nightclubs or bars, or on their way home. Some travelers have been drugged at bars, while others have taken strangers back to their lodgings, where they were drugged, robbed and/or assaulted. Of significant note: nightclubs are vulnerable to acts of spiking drinks. The drug called GHB is gaining popularity in nightclubs, and it has been proven that this drug can knock you unconscious, give you amnesia, and can even kill you. Typically it’s in the form of a capful of liquid mixed with a beverage.

Bogus trolley inspectors, whose aim is to extort a bribe from individuals while checking for trolley tickets, are also a threat. The use of unmarked taxis is also a problem, as passengers have been victims of robbery, kidnapping, extortion, and theft. Although there are few registered taxi services in Russia, you should always use authorized services when arriving at a major airport, and it is best to ask which is registered before moving along.

Russia's law enforcement are well-trained and are extremely professional in their jobs. Although being historically very inadequate since the Soviet Union' breakup, the government has fought police corruption fiercely with success. Policemen should not dare to bribe anyone, as they themselves will end up being fined huge amounts. While there is an ongoing effort to shape up the police force initiated by the government, some policemen still remain underpaid, and therefore corrupt.

If you intend to take a stroll during the night, have someone to accompany you — going alone can only make you a target for corrupt officials and maybe criminals.

North Caucasus

As a tourist, you are strongly discouraged to travel to the North Caucasus, as that region is the most dangerous in the entire country. The area has garnered a bad reputation for terrorism, crime and extremes of both corruption and lawlessness.

At present, the safest region to access for the time being is Karachay-Cherkessia, as that region has encountered very little attacks in the past few years. If you really need to visit the more dangerous pockets of the region, it's best to contact your embassy before traveling to the area. Assistance will be limited, however.

If you are planning to see Mt. Elbrus, it's best to put it on hold until the situation in the region improves.

LGBT travellers

Russia has seen a spike in homophobic activity, since the beginning of 2013 after series of events, that led to adoption of law, establishing fines and deportation or foreigners for LGBT advocacy ("propaganda") directed towards minors. Though homosexuality itself is not criminalized in Russia, you may have problems with the law, participating in any LGBT advocacy activities, where police would believe that minors can be involved. This effectively includes all public "outdoors" advocacy events, including gay-prides, and may also be extended to public demonstration of your orientation and gender identification where minors are present. Participating in indoors LGBT activities, and allowed outdoors actions, where necessary precautions against participating of minors have been taken is legal, but there is still a threat of being hunted by homophobic activists during such events, as they specifically target them. Besides the events, general wisdom about keeping your orientation and gender identification secret will keep you safe in most situations, however, in case of it being disclosed, you may face harassment or violence from people, including hosts, if they didn't know beforehand, service workers, and more unpleasantly, lack of cooperation from police, if you'll have to turn to them seeking help against hate crimes.


Typical city traffic in Russia.

Driving by the majority of Russians is routinely reckless, and has claimed more than 35,000 lives each year. Reckless driving habits, the lack of proper training, and a mixture of very old to old model cars all what contributes to a high death rate on roads. Drivers attack their art with an equal mix of aggressiveness and incompetence. Guidelines are lax and rarely followed. As a pedestrian, take great care when crossing the roads, as pedestrian crossings are widely ignored. Most drivers are not very well trained and forged their licenses to avoid problems with the police. More importantly, the rapidly expanding economy has led to an increase in traffic density. Driving in the tunnels is perhaps even more dangerous than driving on the roads — the tunnels are improperly built as a result of underinvestment, and they claim even more casualties than on the roads.

When driving you must not be under the influence of alcohol. Russians have a zero tolerance to this, and the penalty is about two years imprisonment. If you are pulled over by the GAI (Russian Traffic Police), don't worry — they will simply check your papers. By law, the GAI should not try to solicit a bribe — if that happens, you are entitled to report it to the nearest police station. Under no circumstances try to run away from them — if you do, they will shoot your vehicle, even when you're not armed.


Russia is among one of the world's most corrupt countries, and the police force and traffic police are the most corrupt institutions in the entire country. Russians, being accustomed to a police state throughout most of their history, are unlikely to offer a lot of help if you have a run in with corrupt officials or criminals on the street. As a result, busy main streets are often less safe than quiet back streets  are simply more opportunities for the corrupt.

Russian Mafia

The "Russian Mafia" make for fun movies but are absolutely not a threat to tourists—at best they and their girlfriends are a tourist attraction themselves, as they often dine in foreigner-friendly establishments. Foreigners are disproportionately targeted by pickpockets; foreigners of a non-white complexion are also more likely to be harassed by street youths or corrupt officials. But if you take sensible precautions, nothing bad should happen to you. Keep in mind that the majority of foreigners who do "find" problems do so while drunk.

Juvenile Delinquency

In cities, keep an eye out for juvenile delinquency. Russia has a heartbreakingly large problem of orphaned street children, who unsurprisingly resort to minor crime to keep themselves alive. "Gypsy" children employ some interesting techniques to separate you from your money, including creating a distraction (even fighting among themselves), bumping into you to pick your pockets, or simply swarming a surprised traveler and running their hands through every possible hiding place on your person. In such a situation, instead of showing weakness, just give the offenders a stiff shove and perhaps a few choice words in Russian and they will look for easier targets. You are far less likely to run across older juvenile delinquents, like belligerent skinheads or football hooligans, but if you do, best to give them a wide berth.


Racism is prolific in Russia and has become increasingly violent in recent years. Though travelers do not typically encounter violent hate crimes, it is important to be careful if you are not white and/or if you are noticeably not Christian. While federal law (article 105 of Russia's criminal code) demands harsher penalties against perpetrators of hate crimes, the investigation and prosecution of hate crimes is highly inadequate. Many of these crimes are committed by Neo-Nazis and skinheads in groups, though one may encounter non-violent racism by individuals throughout the country. The bulk of attacks tend to take place in Moscow, St. Petersburg, and Voronezh. If you feel you may be at risk, be aware of those around you, walk in groups when possible, and carry pepper spray if you feel particularly at risk.

For a detailed account of the current state of racism in Russia, please refer to the United Nations Human Rights Council website.

More information about xenophobia and hate crimes in Russia can be found on the SOVA Center for Information and Analysis website.

Identification Papers

Beautiful frescoes in a Vologda church

There is a mistaken belief that everyone in Russia must carry identification papers. This is not the case. However, a lack of proper identification, while not punishable in itself, can lead to 3-hour detention "for identification purposes" (the law says "up to 48 hours" ). Formally, arbitrary document checks are not permitted. They do still happen, though with far less frequency than previously, especially in the larger cities. Document checks are now more likely in places with little tourism  some police officers have very narrow notions of what should be appropriate for tourists.

Having no documents can lead to being held for up to 3h but not arrested. The detention should not be behind bars and you should not be deprived of your belongings (such as mobile phone): you can be taken to a police station, where you will end up sitting on a chair in a normal room while police "identify" you, but again, this rarely happens. Like most countries, you can be arrested if you are suspected of having committed a crime, but being unable to provide ID is not a crime and carries no penalty. No physical force can used in the detention, unless you apply it first. If you are stopped, be confident and remember that police officers are forbidden from shouting at you. The passport checks that do happen are primarily targeted at darker skinned people who are suspected of being illegal immigrants. Western-looking, Caucasian people are very rarely asked on the street for ID.

To spare yourself of potential problems, you may choose to carry your passport, migration card and registration slip on you. If you do, keep a separate photocopy just in case.

Being stopped for ID is not necessarily a pretext for a bribe. Normally a police officer will salute and ask for your passport (listen out for words like 'paspart', 'veeza' or 'dokumenty'). Hand these to them, they will look at them, hand them back and salute you. While generally an unnerving experience for first time tourists, there is nothing sinister in this.

A corrupt policeman may claim that there are problems with your documentation (passport, immigrations card and residence registration), and demand a fine (bribe). You have three options: you may in a nice, friendly and firm manner explain that actually everything is fine, there is no problem with your documents and you are willing to go to the police station to clear things up; you can pay (RUB300 should be enough in metropolitan areas); threaten. The first option is difficult without some Russian proficiency (and solid nerves), but will generally work. The second option buys you peace but encourages further corruption. The third option is more confrontational and requires some nerve: get out a mobile phone and threaten to call your embassy. This can work and the police may well back off.


Keep your money folded with small bills on the outside, concealing the larger ones. Bring out your cash only when actually handing it over. Keep larger amounts separate and hidden from smaller day-to-day money.

Dangerous animals

Meeting packs of aggressive dogs that are strays or on guard duty but not chained/restrained is possible, especially off the beaten path. Staying calm and holding your bags in front of you may prove sufficient. Follow other advice from the linked article if it's not.

Stay healthy

Medical facilities in general vary. A majority of hospitals are extremely well equipped, clean, and possess all of the latest technologies, while there are some that are well below western standards, with shortages in medication and neglected equipment.

Ensure that all of your vaccinations are up to date, and you have sufficient amounts of any prescription medicine you may be taking. Pharmacies are common in major cities and carry quality western medications.

Quality of tap water varies around the country, and may even be variable within cities. In old buildings tap water can be non-potable. In the big cities of European Russia, the water is clean of biological contaminants, but often suffers from the presence of heavy metals, due to outdated city plumbing. If you can't buy bottled water, boil water before drinking, or better yet use a special filter for tap water, which you could buy in any supermarket. Bottled water costs only about RUB20-30 (USD0.80-1.10) for 2L, but watch out for refilled bottles being sold.

A fairly typical country church in wintry Staraya Ladoga

Besides local doctors (generally good quality but often working in poor facilities) there are several Western-run medical centres in major Russian cities. These all have different policies for payment (some take credit cards, some require payment in cash up front, even if you have insurance) so make sure you know what you are paying for (and when and how) before you agree to any services.

Be careful not to buy fake vodka, which can be dangerous (seriously here, 'dangerous' doesn't mean 'strong'; it can contain methanol). Only buy vodka in large stores or specialized ones like Aromatnyi Mir in Moscow, with the sticker over the cap and/or the region's barcode on the side.

Significant number of food stores, including some food/goods chains, standalone food shops, kiosks and food markets are famous for selling food of bad quality, including out-of-date or even out-of-date with expire date reprinted with a later date. Although most of them are quite good, when possible, check the quality of the food with visual observation, don't especially trust expire date labels, that are added in a replaceable way. Also you can take note of what others are buying, sometimes you can even ask other buyers which product is better, it's considered normal. That could help you make a good choice. Examples of usually bad quality food sold are most of fish products, including smoked and spicy salted (be especially care), pre-made salads, fresh vegetables and fruits, when you can't handpick them (at markets check them after shop-women picked them for you, you can usually change those you don't like, at shops they usually don't allow to change, and use to add some bad ones into bag), vegetables conservatives sold with discount (and with older production date usually), cheaper dairy products, though less consistent, checking what others buy may help you here. Since 2008, producers of juices can not mark their production as juice (rus: сок) if it isn't 100% juice. Today, all low quality juices marked as nectar (rus: нектар) are up to 50-70% of water and "fruit drinks" (rus: фруктовый напиток) can contain anything!

Russia's HIV prevalence is steadily rising, mainly for prostitutes, young adults and drug users. Be safe.


Orthodox Christianity is the religion with most followers in Russia

Russians are reserved and well-mannered people.


Smiling in Russia is traditionally reserved for friends, and smiling at a stranger may make them self-conscious. Smile at a Russian in the street and most likely they will not respond in kind. An automatic US-American or romanic-European smile is widely regarded as insincere. While that tradition is slowly changing as Russia smiling is still very rare in customer service. Sales assistants, public servants and the like are expected to look serious and businesslike. Hence the very common misconception about Russians that they are a very grim folk and never smile — they do, once they get to know you, and become very welcoming and kind.

When approaching a stranger with a question, attempt to use Russian at first and ask if they speak English, Russians are very proud of their language and people will be noticeably more aloof if you approach them speaking English. Even just using the Russian equivalents of 'please' and 'thank you' will make a noticeable difference to people.

Women are traditionally treated with chivalry. Female travellers should not act surprised or indignant when their Russian male friends pay their bills at restaurants, open every door in front of them, offer their hand to help them climb down that little step or help them carry anything heavier than a handbag — this is not intended as condescending. Male travellers should understand that this will be expected of them by Russian women too.

The "OK" gesture is okay.

Inside voices

Fortress Oreshek on Lake Ladoga - no longer necessary for defense against the Swedish navy.

Russians have a marvelously and intimately quiet way of speaking with one another in public. It's best to try and follow suit to avoid standing out like a sore thumb and generally making everyone around you really uncomfortable—stand a little closer to your interlocutor and ease up on the volume.

Sensitive Issues

Much care is required when it comes to talking about World War II and the Soviet Union. That conflict was a major tragedy for Soviets and every family has at least one relative among the 25-30 million people who died (more than Western Europe and the United States combined) and the scars of that conflict are still felt today. Also avoid discussing the war in Afghanistan during the 1980s.

Avoid discussing relations with the Georgians or the Ukrainians. Talking about these subjects can lead to hostility and maybe even fierce debates. Tense relations between neigboring countries have led to many conflicts, and there exists a high sense of national pride regarding their government's actions in Georgia and Ukraine

Homosexuality is a sensitive issue, with official government policy increasingly restricting the rights of the LGBT community.

Political Issues

Likewise, keep your political opinions to yourself. Ask as many questions as you like, but avoid making statements or comments about its past and current political situation. Russia and the Soviet Union had an often violent history and most Russian people are tired of hearing "how bad the Soviet Union was" from western people. They lived it, are proud of both its triumphs and tragedies, and they probably know much more about it than you. Also avoid criticising the conflict in Chechnya. The war in the Chechen republic was horrific for both sides. The separatist forces are regarded as Islamist terrorists after mass terrorist attacks in 2000-2005. Political opinions in Russia are very polarized and political discussion is always very tough. Better to avoid it.

Home Etiquette

Church on the Blood, Yekaterinburg, on the spot where Tsar Nicholas II and his family were executed by the Bolsheviks, ending the Romanov Dynasty

Dining Etiquette

Other etiquette



As of 2014, the Russian government is moving to restrict access to public wi-fi on the grounds that the Internet is "a CIA project" and laws requiring identity documents from anyone attempting to access the network are needed to fight "extremism" and "terrorism." This appears to be part of a larger crackdown on Russia's Internet and free expression in general.


The country code for Russia (and Kazakhstan as a former member of the former Soviet Union), is 7.

Russian phone numbers have an area code with three, four or five digits (according to their province), followed by an individual number with, respectively, 7, 6 or 5 digits, always yielding 10 digits in total. The three digit code 800 is used for toll-free calls. Mobile phones always have three-digit "area" codes and seven-digit numbers.

Calls within any one area code may omit the area code (except in Moscow).

Inter-area code calls within Russia: 8 (wait for tone) full Russian number including area code.

The international access code for dialling out from Russia is the sequence of 8 (wait for secondary tone and then) 10

International calls to Russia, as always, replace the plus sign (+) in the international phone format with the local international access code for the country you're calling from, followed by Russia's country code of 7 followed by the individual Russian phone number including area code.

Prepaid SIM cards

There are 5 GSM operators in Russia, which all use the 900/1800 MHz standard for 2G, 900/2100 MHz standard for 3G, and 800/2600 MHz standard for 4G/LTE, the same as Europe and Asia. Check that your phone supports one of these standards before bringing it to Russia. The 5 operators are Beeline, Megafon, MTS, Tele2, and Yota. There is also one CDMA network: Skylink but you need to purchase a Skylink phone to use this network.

All carriers offer cheap SIM cards with data plans that are always a better alternative to paying roaming charges. Megafon is considered to have the best coverage but Beeline is considered to be the cheapest.

If you buy a SIM card in a shop, you'll need your passport for identification and it will take around 5 minutes to complete the required paperwork. If you don't speak Russian, you will need to find someone who speaks English. Alternatively, you can buy a SIM card from automated kiosks in metro stations. Calls to landlines from mobile phones are more expensive than calls to other mobile phones, especially those that use the same network. Incoming calls are free. You can add value to your card at the stores of the company you are using or at automated kiosks. You can buy a prepaid card for international calls, but online services such as Skype are often cheaper.

If you want to connect your laptop or computer to a data network, you can also buy cheap SIM cards for a USB-modem.



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