New Australia (Nueva Australia) is in Southern Paraneña.
Settled by disgruntled and idealistic Australians in October, 1893, this was the first attempt at communism anywhere in the world. About 700 people set up a colony without money or bosses based on the theories of Karl Marx. In 1957 the town changed its name to Nueva Londres. The tiny town with some of the descendants of the original settlers still exists about 5 km west of Coronel Oviedo. - A second town, again with descendents, was founded by the same group of Australians at Cosme, 90km south of Asuncion, near Ca azapa.