Bromo-Tengger-Semeru National Park

Bromo-Tengger-Semeru National Park is in East Java, Indonesia.

WARNING: In November 2014, one person died after he insisted on climbing from Kalimati to the Semeru peak, when a one-meter boulder hit him. Follow the policy of the vulcanology body that all climbers should climb as far as Kalimati only, considering Semeru's eruptions.

Starting on February 26, 2016, Mount Bromo warning status has lowered and tourists can visit Mount Bromo, but cannot do activities within limit of one kilometers from the caldera.

Clockwise from lower left: the Poten Hindu temple, the steaming crater of Mount Bromo, erupting Mount Semeru, stately Mount Batok. This is the view from atop Mount Pananjakan.


This national park is named after its two mountains, Mount Semeru (the highest in Java at 3,676 m), Mount Bromo (the most popular) and the Tengger people who inhabit the area.

Mount Semeru, also known as Mahameru ("Great Mountain"), is one of Indonesia's most active volcanoes. What stands out most about this mountain is that it erupts reliably: every 20 min or so, the volcano belches out a huge cloud of steam and smoke, sometimes interspersed with ash and stones. Climbing Mount Semeru requires some planning and a permit from the national park authority. The mountain is often closed due to its highly active nature.

Mount Bromo (2,329 m) is easily recognized as the entire top has been blown off and the crater inside constantly belches white sulphurous smoke. It sits inside the massive Tengger caldera (diameter approximately 10 km), surrounded by the Laut Pasir (Sea of Sand) of fine volcanic sand. The overall effect is unsettlingly unearthly, especially when compared to the lush green valleys all around the caldera. With more than 500,000 tourists a year, Bromo is full with tourists in school holidays and long holidays (at least 4 days), because about 95 percent of the tourists are domestic tourists, so avoid this moments to see Bromo.

The major access point is Cemoro Lawang (also Cemara Lawang or Cemoro Lawang - blame the East Javanese accent!) at the northeastern edge of the caldera, but there are also trails from Tosari (northwest) and Ngadas (southwest). The village of Ngadisari, on the road from Probolinggo about 5.5 km before Cemoro Lawang, marks the entrance to the national park. Both Cemoro Lawang and Ngadisari are rather picturesque, with brightly-painted houses and flower beds outside.

Every year, starting in January, climbing Semeru is prohibited for several weeks (usually more than a month) to allow the vegetation to recover.

The Tenggerese

Roro Anteng and Joko Seger

Javanese folklore has it that during the 15th century, Princess Roro Anteng (daughter of the Majapahit King Brawijaya) and her husband Joko Seger fled marauding Islamic forces, ending up in safety at Mount Bromo. Here they developed a new kingdom, and named it Teng-ger using parts of their respective surnames.

The Kingdom of Tengger prospered and their religion flourished, but the royal couple were unable to produce an heir to the throne. In desperation they prayed and meditated on Bromo for many days before the crater opened and the almighty god Hyang Widi Wasa announced that they would be given children, with the condition that the last-born was to be sacrificed back to the mountain.

No less than 25 children were produced, but many years later Roro and Joko broke the condition and refused to sacrifice their last-born, Prince Kesuma. A dreadful eruption of Bromo followed and swallowed Kesuma into the crater. To appease the great God, Kesuma's brothers and sisters held an offering ceremony at the crater once every year, and this still happens today — the famous Upacara Kasada held on the full moon of the 12th month (Kasada) of the Tenggerese calendar.

The area in and around the park is inhabited by the Tenggerese, one of the few significant Hindu communities left on the island of Java. The local religion is a remnant from the Majapahit era and therefore quite similar to that on Bali but with even more animist elements. The Tenggerese are believed to be descendents of the Majapahit princes and were driven into the hills after mass arrivals in the area of devoutly Muslim Madurese in the 19th century. These Madurese immigrants were labourers working for Dutch coffee plantation owners and the native Hindu people of the region soon found themselves outnumbered and either converted to Islam or fled to the inhospitable high mountain tops where they remain today.

The religion is quite low key though (certainly when compared to Bali) with the most visible manifestation of faith being the rather austere Poten temple in the sea of sand. The Tenggerese number about 600,000 and they reside in 30 villages scattered in and around the park with smaller communities elsewhere in East Java.

For many visitors, the sight of the angular-faced, sunburned, moustachioed Tenggerese wrapped in poncho-like blankets, trotting about on ponies with craggy mountains as the backdrop, more resembles Peru than Indonesia!


If a landscape was ever needed to demonstrate the meaning of the phrase desolate beauty, then this is surely it. Rugged, barren volcanic peaks, gravel plains and that sea of sand. Truly unworldly.

The park also includes large areas which are very lush and green fed by rivers from the high tops. The medium elevations are clad with much thinner forest before this gives way to the barren plateau and peaks.

Flora and fauna

In the parts of the park which most interest visitors (the caldera and mountain tops) flora and fauna is limited by the general lack of vegetation. At lower elevations and away from the sea of sand, there are though lush green valleys with a typical tropical forest flora. The higher elevations before the tree line ends are largely clad with casuarina (cemara) forest.

Down in the valleys, a few leopard cats are present but rarely seen. Java rusa deer, muntjac, marbled cat and wild pig are amongst the mammals more likely to be glimpsed by casual visitors. This park is not so renowned for birdwatching as others in Java, but up on the plateau you often see hawks and eagles soaring over the valleys below.


Temperatures are refreshingly cool during the day but outright cold at night as temperatures can drop close to zero in the summer and are rarely much above 5°C in winter. Daytime temperatures anywhere in the park never exceed 20°C with low teens being normal.

It can rain at anytime and the mean average rainfall is 6,600 mm. Most of that comes in the wet season though - November to March. During periods of heavy rain in January and February especially, many parts of the park are inaccessible due to flooding. Landslips are also a real issue at these times.

The 2010/2011 eruptions

In late 2010 and early 2011 volcanic ash and incandescent material was thrown up by eruptive activity with a heavy rain of ejected volcanic material falling around the crater. Continuous eruptions on 21 January caused a thin ash fall mainly in the village area of Ngadirejo and Sukapura Wonokerto, Probolinggo district. The impact of the heavy rain and volcanic ash from eruptions during December 2010 and January 2011 resulted in disruption to normal activities and the local economy. The potential for long term environmental damage and health problems amongst the residents in the locality surrounding Mount Bromo was paramount at that time.

Due to high seasonal rainfall in January 2011 the potential for lahar (cold lava) and lava flow (hot lava) was elevated due to the deposits of volcanic ash, sand and other ejected material that thad built up. Activity was dominated by tremor vibration, eruption of ash plumes and ejection of incandescent material.

People living on the banks of the Perahu Ravine, Nganten Ravine and Sukapura River were alerted to the high possibility of lahar flows, especially if further heavy rainfalls occur in the area around Cemorolawang, Ngadisari and Ngadirejo. Eruptions and volcanic tremors were reported on 21 January and 22 January with activity subsiding on 23 January 2011.

The park was reopened to visitors in April 2011.

Official Tourism Offices

Get in

Mount Bromo is perhaps the most accessible of Java's active volcanoes and for that reason it gets a lot of domestic tourists, often in package groups. It is also a popular destination for high school groups who camp in the area. For that reason, those visitors seeking a quiet appreciation of the park should avoid major domestic holiday periods or at least you have no room at the main watchpoint platform area to take sunrise photos. That being said, this is a large park and providing you get away from the main watchpoint platform area, quiet enjoyment is possible at any time, as long as the Tenggar caldera in the Mount Bromo volcano complex is not erupting as it did in 2004, late 2010 and early 2011. If so some caution may be required.

Eruptive activity of Tengger caldera in the Mount Bromo volcano complex-Cautions for visitors

A 2 km general exclusion zone was proclaimed in early 2011 and currently remains in place at Mount Bromo.

Tourists and hikers are advised that they should not enter within any exclusion zone in the region and to maintain a safe distance at all times. The Indonesian Centre for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation (CVGHM) and Park authorities have installed warning signs to define the safe approach limits for visitors.

Warning signs and other advisories state the limit radius at the site as may be determined subject to the prevailing eruptive conditions. It is expected that the exclusion zone, extended significantly as an outcome of the eruptive activity in early 2011 may remain for an extended time.

It should be understood that that approaching the area still involves significant risk, even if staying outside the proclaimed exclusion zone.

This volcano has a history of spontaneous activity, sometimes including the ejection of ballistic projectile material. Some previous such spontaneous events have resulted in fatalities, injury and property damage.

As of 30 March 2011 the tourist route to Mt. Bromo, Laut Pasir, Keciri, Jemplang, Padang Savana Tenger, & Bukit Adasan have reopened for visitors. However, since the eruptive activity of Mt. Bromo is unpredictable, ensure that you pay close attention to all advisories and cautions and use special care whilst in the area.

Visit times are restricted to 7AM-5PM.

Current cautions

If eruptive activity recommences and you are in the area please consider your need to remain there. If contemplating travel to the area during an eruption you should anticipate that services including the provision of accommodation, tourism related activities and facilities, civil services and travel arrangements may be disrupted, most especially if the eruptive activity is prolonged or escalates in intensity.

You should monitor the media for information concerning eruptive activity at the site if you are considering travel to the Mount Bromo area and use extra care at all times if near the site.

By plane

By road

There are three established routes into the park.

The Probolinggo Ngadisari Route (Cemoro Lawang and mount Bromo)

The nearest larger town is Probolinggo, on the north coast of Java about 45 km as the crow flies from the park (but it feels a lot further). This is by far the commonest route used to access the park as it is the most straightforward (but not necessarily the most interesting). About 6 km west of Probolinggo on the main coastal highway, turn south at the village of Ketapang. From there the road snakes up for 40 km through Sukapura (not a bad idea to stay the night here as the hotels are good) to Ngadisari and finally Cemoro Lawang on the edge of the caldera. Total journey time about 1 hour and 30 minutes.

To get to Probolinggo from Surabaya, take a Damri shuttle bus from the Juanda International Airport in Surabaya to the Bungurasih bus terminal (also called Purabaya) in the city. Then take an express Patas air-conditioned bus for the 2 to 3 hr journey from Surabaya to Probolinggo (about Rp 25,000).

Green Mini-Buses (10 seats) from Probolinggo to Cemoro Lawang are located right outside the terminal: Rp 250,000 (translates to Rp 25,000 per passenger). Departure from the terminal bus station as soon as the bus is full or someone pays the full price. Can delay the bus up to 2.5 hours to get enough passengers. However, the drivers can sometimes be less demanding for return trip back to Probolinggo, and can start out with fewer passengers on board.

The Pasuruan Tosari Route

This route is only a little harder than the Probolinggo option and Pasuruan has the benefit of being closer to Surabaya. From Pasuruan on the main north coast road between Surabaya and Probolinggo, take the road 45 km south to Tosari up into the hills via Pastepan. Irregular buses ply this route or you can drive it in a regular car. From Tosari to Wonokitri it is another 3 km via a local bemo or on the back of a truck. From Wonokotri up to Bromo it is a really nice three hour 14 km trek, so you do need to start very early if you want sunrise. Alternatively you should be able to hire a 4x4 with a driver for that journey. There is accommodation in both Tosari and Wonokitri.

The Malang Tumpang Route

This route approaches Bromo from the south east and is seldom used due to the lack of facilities. This is certainly the most off-the-beaten-path way to approach the park. Take a microbus from Arjosari bus station in Malang to Tumpang and then a 4WD vehicle or a heavy truck from Tumpang to Ngadas. There are no facilities to speak of at Ngadas but there is informal accommodation in family homes in the village. At Ranupani up on the top there is very simple homestay accommodation available - ask at the park office there. The route from Ngadas on to the caldera is interesting because it transverses the Sea of Sand and directly passes Mount Bromo. A dirt road leads across the flat bottom of the caldera, up to Jemplang on the southern rim and on to Ranupani where you should check in at the park office. You have to take a 4WD vehicle (unless you prefer to walk).


Stairway to Bromo crater

Prior to entering the park, your car will be directed into a car park at the base of the mountain. Upon exiting your car, unless you are on a prearranged tour, middlemen will approach you to offer tickets for a jeep ride to see the sunrise and be taken to the Bromo crater. If you buy your ticket from them, they will hike the price and buy your ticket for you from the office which is directly behind them. Simply avoid them by going to the office and asking to purchase a voucher. Alternatively you can walk or take a motorcycle taxi, rates negotiable for motorcycle taxi.

The entrance fee to Bromo Tengger Semeru National Park since May 5, 2014 is Rp 207,500 for foreigners and Rp 17,500 for Indonesians in weekdays, and Rp 307,500 and Rp 22,500 respectively in non-weekdays. In 2014, all tourists came to the park are relatively same with last year. From about 550,000 tourists a year, about 25,000 tourists are foreign tourists.

If you intend to climb Mount Semeru (only for serious trekkers and often closed due to eruptive activity) you will need to apply for a permit in advance to Office of Bromo Tengger Semeru National Park, Jl. Raden Intan No. 6, PO Box 54, Malang, East Java, ☎ +62 341 491828

Get around

From the village of Cemoro Lawang, you can easily hike up Mount Bromo and Mount Penanjakan and the best time to do this is pre-dawn. Villagers offer horseback rides to the top of Mount Bromo or go around in the caldera with tariff Rp 100.000 to Rp 150.000, depends on your haggle and the horse, but in off season January till end of March the tariff is Rp 100.000. You can also hire a jeep to take you around the area (about Rp 350,000 for one jeep ride in the caldera). The whole area is a hiker's dream though - walk if you possibly can.

From Argosari in Senduro District, Lumajang one can hike to a hill called B-29, which is a good place to take panoramic photos of long sandy beaches with Mount Bromo at the background.


Madakaripura Waterfall - a good example of the lush nature of the park at lower elevations


Sunrise at the Bromo-Tengger-Semeru National Park

When timing any activities in the area, bear in mind that sunset is soon after 17:00 and sunrise is correspondingly early at around 05:30. This means you will usually need to get up by 03:30 or so to get to a watchpoint in time for dawn.

For the keen hiker, this park is a dream come true and you can make your own schedule. There are many possibilities once you are away from the more popular area at Mount Bromo. Maps and information about the area are available at one of the many official locations. A very easy hike to the first viewpoint takes 1 hour.

The park operates vehicular transport options, for the official prices of Rp 350,000 for 2 locations; usually one of the Pananjakan viewpoints and the parking area towards Mount Bromo, or Rp 750,000 for 4 locations. Be weary of hawkers offering "guided" trips for up to twice as much. The official driver provided are locals and usually have good knowledge. Feel free to ask drivers at any time to stop for photos or ask questions. Visitors may also bring their own vehicles; alternatively, guides can also be rented on motorbike to guide you around. A tour 4WD can fit up to 6 people.

Posts may also request entrance fees (one post per visit). The official fee is minimal, but the local guides may ask for more, this should still be well under Rp 10,000 rupiah per person. The attentive visitor might rather walk to the post and ask to have the tickets issued directly. No other fees exist, aside from transportation services.

  1. 1 hour to Viewpoint2
  2. 1 hour to Viewpoint1 from Viewpoint2
  3. 1.5 hours to go back(to Cemarah Indah hotel)
  4. 1 hour to the Crater from the back trail entrance of Cemarah Indah hotel
  1. Around 03:00 go to Cemara Indah Hotel and follow the paved road to the north(not to the caldera). Most of the way is paved and has many houses around.
  2. On the way (30 min) you will pass a little bridge - just continue and follow the road.
  3. Before you reach Viewpoint2 you have to go up some stairs.
  4. From Viewpoint2 you can go up a steep, narrow, washed out trail to Viewpoint1. (Viewpoint 1 is a mess of cars/ojeks and tourists, so is highly recommended to just watch the sunrise from Viewpoint 2 or some of the viewpoints upper it.
  5. Enjoy the sunrise.
  6. Go same way back.
  7. At Cemera Indiah Hotel you can go down a muddy trail (it's next to a fence) and then head to the Temple and the Crater, it will take you 1 hour. If you get stop by somebody(rarely) asking you for a ticket, use some excuse like your jeep driver has returned without you.
  8. Head back - The majority of tours leave Cemoro Lawang around 09:00.


The most popular local product, at least based on the number of hawkers selling them, appears to be the Bromo hat, a colorful wooly hat with BROMO embroidered on it.

Scarfs and extra warm clothing are also popular and useful if you are not prepared for the cold mountain air.


Every lodge and hotel has an attached restaurant and there are few independent eateries of any note.

There are simple roadside warungs though selling the regular basic Indonesian dishes and Rp 2,000 mugs of hot Javanese coffee (kopi panas). There is no nightlife but all restaurants are open at 03:00 as that is when everybody wakes to see the sun rise.


Evenings in the park are quiet. A few beers with fellow travellers are in order.

The mulled wine served at some places in the evening seems to be heated Tuak (a palm wine) with some local spices added. Only those with the strongest constitution should even consider this and frankly, it is not very nice.

Make sure you always have enough water with you during the day as it is deceptively easy to de-hydrate here, despite the fresh climate.



Colourful Tenggerese farm house, Cemoro Lawang

There is plenty of accommodation around the park. Most facilities at Cemoro Lawang (very conveniently located with dramatic views because it is perched on the edge of the caldera) and elsewhere close to the caldera are somewhat basic so visitors looking for more up market accommodation should stay in Sukapura or Tosari.

Cemoro Lawang




Camping is certainly possible in the park but you must register at the Cemoro Lawang gate (where there is an adjacent campsite). There are many sources of safe, fresh water in the park - ask locally.

Potential campers should be very aware of how cold it gets here though and be thoroughly prepared for that. Heavy duty sleeping bags are essential.

Stay healthy

Temperatures on Mount Bromo are refreshingly cool during the day (although sunburn is still a real danger), but outright cold at night, as temperatures can drop to zero in the summer and are rarely much above 5°C in winter. Some of the cheaper places to stay may not provide adequate blankets or heating, so come prepared. If needed, you can rent jackets and hats at Cemoro Lawang and at the Penanjakan viewpoint for about Rp 10,000.

There are cases of malaria each year in the lower foothills of the park and any visitor planning a long stay or to camp in this area should take necessary precautions. This is not though a problem for those visiting Mount Bromo or the high plateau only.

Stay safe

Mount Semeru erupting in 2004

The "path" at the top of the steps up to Mount Bromo is only about 1 metre wide and in places the drop into the crater is sheer and considerable. Be careful, make sure you have a flashlight for any pre-dawn climb and always have your wits about you.

Bromo is an active volcano, and Semeru is a very active volcano. In June 2004, two tourists were killed at Bromo by rocks flung from a sudden explosion. The Smithsonian Institute's Volcanic Activity Report keeps an eye on both, and is worth checking.

It gets very cold up on the high tops at night, probably colder than anywhere in Indonesia outside of the glacial highlands of Papua. Be suitably prepared for nighttime temperatures not far above zero.

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