Lower Saxony

Lower Saxony (German: Niedersachsen) is a federal state in northwestern Germany. It is the second largest state by area (47,618 km²) (after Bavaria) and fourth largest by population (nearly eight million) among the country's sixteen states. It was created after World War II by the British; most of its territory had been the Kingdom, later Province, of Hanover.


View from Wilseder Berg in Lüneburg Heath


Hanover City hall (Neues Rathaus)


Other destinations


Public holidays

Each state in Germany can set its own public holidays. For Lower Saxony they are:

Date Name
1 January 2016 New Year's Day
25 March 2016 Good Friday
27 March 2016 Easter Day
28 March 2016 Easter Monday
1 May 2016 Labour Day
5 May 2016 Ascension
15 May 2016 Pentecost
16 May 2016 Whit Monday
3 October 2016 German Unity Day
25 December 2016 Christmas Day
26 December 2016 Boxing Day


The predominant spoken form of German taught and spoken Lower Saxony is High German or Hochdeutsch. Although there are different accents in several regions and some grammatical variations are regionally widespread, the language closely follows written German and is thus easy to understand.

It is often said and commonly believed in Germany, that the dialect spoken in Hannover is the "best" dialect in terms of "correctness" as it is closest to the written form.

In the north, Low German or Plattdeutsch (Plattdüütsch or Platt in Low German) is widespread and even spoken alongside Hochdeutsch (Hoochdüütsch). In some areas there are even different forms of Plattdeutsch, albeit very locally.

In the north and northeast, variants of the Frisian dialects are still officially recognised and spoken by a few thousands of people. Frisian is actually more closely related to English than to German and has little to do with the various (low) German dialects also spoken in Frisia that are sometimes mistaken for it.

Whilst English is a compulsory foreign language for schoolchildren, many adults have only a basic knowledge of the language or are not confident enough to speak it. In tourist areas, many of the signs are in two or more languages. The German national railway, Deutsche Bahn, uses two languages on all their signs and, in long-distance trains, even the announcements are also made in English as well as German.

Get in

By air

The most important airports are Hanover (IATA: HAJ), Hamburg (IATA: HAM) (other Bundesland, Niedersachsen-Ticket not valid), Bremen (IATA: BRE) (other Bundesland, Niedersachsen-Ticket valid) and Münster/Osnabrück (IATA: FMO) in Greven (in the neighbouring state of North Rhine-Westphalia).

There are also some small airports with mostly domestic and seasonal services on most of the inhabited Est-Frisian islands. Unless one of the islands is your final destination or you arrive in your own plane, you are unlikely to use any of those.

By rail

The largest station in Lower Saxony is Hanover Central (Hauptbahnhof Hannover), which has hourly connexions to Hamburg, Frankfurt and Munich as well as other long-distance destinations. It is on the high speed lines from Hanover to Würzburg and Hanover to Berlin; travel times to Hamburg are also attractive.

Other large regional hubs are Brunswick (regional services to East Germany and the Harz) and Göttingen (regional services to the South Harz).

The two largest transport associations are GVH (Großraumverkehr Hannover) in Hanover and VRB (Verbundtarif Region Braunschweig) in Brunswick. It should be noted that tickets for journeys within those transport association zones must be purchase before travelling as they are not available on the trains.


Along with state run regional buses covering distances of usually 50 kilometers and less, there are private domestic and international long distance lines that serve the region and connect it to the rest of Central Europe

By road

The largest motorways (Autobahnen) are the A2 running from east to west and the A2 running from north to south. The A1 in the north is also an important link. The A2 has three lanes throughout, the A1 and A7 on those sections where traffic levels are highest. In spite of that all three motorways, especially the A2, are very busy, prone to accidents and thus traffic jams.

Large cities like Hanover and Brunswick have their own networks of city motorways.

Important federal roads (Bundesstraßen) are the B1, B3, B4 (Harz) and B6 (Buxtehude - Celle - Hanover). Several have also been upgraded to near-motorway standard, in that they have dual carriageways each with two lanes.

The density of fixed safety cameras varies from region to region, but they are especially common in the Harz even on steep section of road. In wooded areas the risk of accidents involving wildlife is very high; wild boar in particular can cause a lot of damage to vehicles and danger to life if struck. In rural areas, straight roads with avenues of trees are also dangerous and frequently claim lives as a result of speeding or reckless overtaking.

By boat

The largest port is Hamburg which, although not part of Lower Saxony, has good road and rail connections (note that for regional travel the Niedersachsen Ticket does not apply in Hamburg)

There are also limited connections (mostly cruises) along the Mittellandkanal and some services from Dutch ports (you can get to the German island of Borkum from Eemshaven (NL) for example) to German islands.

Get around

"Metronom" regional train on track from Uelzen to Göttingen.

There is a special ticket called the "Niedersachsen Ticket" which offers unlimited travel by regional trains inside Lower Saxony area, up to Bremen and Hamburg in one day. This ticket is not valid in high speed trains (D, EC, IC, ICE) unless otherwise noted so make sure you board the right trains (RE, RB, S-Bahn, Metronom) when using this ticket. It is valid from 9am to 3am the following day during weekdays and the whole day on weekends. The price of the ticket depends on the size of your party with 23€ for a single person and four Euros on top of that for every additional person up to five. If you are more than five people, other discounts might apply, or you can simply buy more than one group ticket. These tickets are also valid inside public transport network in some of the cities (Hanover, Hamburg, Bremen, Brunswick).




Grünkohlessen, a typical regional dish: kale served with Pinkel, Kochwurst, Kassler and bacon

Lower Saxony has a number of traditions when it comes to cuisine that are often widespread, but with local regional variations. Many of the recipes are based on local food and tend to be basic, hearty and flavoursome, rather than haute cuisine. An exception, perhaps, is Welf Pudding, a layered pudding made from milk, eggs, wine and vanilla, that was created by one of the chefs to the royal household in Hanover.

Unsurprisingly fish dishes using, for example plaice, flounder and mackerel, feature strongly in the coastal region. Herring is served in various guises, popular ones being Matjeshering (soused), Brathering (fried) or Rollmops (pickled). Inland, trout (Forelle) and eels (Aale) are popular.

As elsewhere in Germany, pork is the most form of popular meat, with beef a poor second and lamb rarely seen. There are the inevitable regional types of pre-cooked sausage (Kochwurst) which is very popular in the Lüneburg Heath, the Bremen area and Schaumburg Land; local varieties include Bregenwurst, Kohlwurst, Pinkelwurst. Other meat dishes from that area are Knipp a kind of smoked sausage, venison, wild boar and hare. Another heath speciality are Heidschnucken dishes created using mutton from the local moorland sheep. Two specialities from the Hanover region are Schlachteplatte, a dish of assorted meat, and the Calenberger Pfannenschlag (also known as Rinderwurst, a beef sausage). The internationally known Braunschweiger sausage presumably originates from Brunswick. Around Gifhorn and Wolfsburg a form of black pudding called Pottwurst, served with Sauerkraut (pickled cabbage), is popular in the autumn.

The most common accompaniment is the humble potato, boiled potatoes (Salzkartoffeln, that is potatoes boild in salted water without their skin) being by far the most common. Another popular vegetable, very typical of the area, is Grünkohl (kale), sometimes known as Braunkohl especially in Bremen and Brunswick Land.

Asparagus (Spargel) is eaten as a great delicacy in Lower Saxony. It is grown mainly around the towns of Burgdorf, Nienburg, Brunswick and in the Oldenburg Münsterland as well as the southern part of the Lüneburg Heath and on the Stade Geest. Asparagus season begins around April and lasts until June 24th. As the best Spargel is grown locally and eaten only during the season, asparagus devotion can seem quasi-religious at times.

Soup is a common form of starter. Particularly popular is Hochzeitssuppe ("wedding soup"), a meat broth. On the North Sea coast there a plant called arrowgrass, known locally as Stranddreizack or Röhrkohl, grows in salt meadows immediately by the coast and is prepared, like Grünkohl, as a thick stew. Other country dishes in the coastal region are Steckrübeneintopf and Birnen, Bohnen und Speck, both types of stew.

The Germans are great cake eaters, popular regional varieties being butter cakes (Butterkuchen) and, around the Lüneburg Heath, Buchweizentorte (buckwheat cake) which is like a gateau and very tasty.


East Frisian tea

Lower Saxony is home to many breweries, for example in Jever, Einbeck, Celle, Lüneburg, Brunswick, Allersheim (part of Holzminden), Hanover, Wittingen, Peine and Göttingen.

Two of the oldest beers, brewed since the Middle Ages, are Braunschweiger Mumme and Goslarer Gose.

In general the Lower Saxons prefer coffee to tea, except in the regions of East Frisia and Friesland where tea is popular and often drunk with Kluntjes (rock candy) and cream.

A specialty found mainly in East Frisia (i.e. the North of Niedersachsen) are "Pharisäer" (Coffee with rum and a whipped cream topping) that also exist in the caffeine free version (replacing cacao for coffee) of "tote Tanten" (literally dead aunts).

Stay safe

While this area is very safe in terms of crime and even the big city issues of Hanover and Braunschweig are not all that bad, there are some natural hazards:

Swimming in the North Sea is usually only allowed during certain hours of the day. As the tides can be very strong, it is best to follow the advice and don't bathe when it isn't allowed.

Mudflat hiking with a guide is a safe fun activity. Without one it can be deadly, due to people being lost and trapped by the rising tide. Fog is more common than you might think.

Go next

This article is issued from Wikivoyage - version of the Sunday, February 21, 2016. The text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike but additional terms may apply for the media files.