Käsivarsi Wilderness Area

Käsivarsi Wilderness Area in the "arm" of Finland is the most popular of the wilderness areas in Finnish Lapland. It features all of the peeks above 1000m in the country, except the nearby Saana. It borders to Reisa National Park in Norway.

Understand

History

Like the other wilderness areas Käsivarsi was established in 1991, but it had been a popular destination long before (a hostel in nearby Kilpisjärvi was built 1937, a hotel 1948). With its 2206 km² it is the second largest of the areas.

Large scale reindeer husbandry was introduced in the area in the 17th century. Some Sámi families still live in the Raittijärvi Lapp village (with no road connections) for most of the year.

Landscape

View from the Termisvaara fell. Fell heath, bare rock on the slopes, some bogs in the valley, which at 620 m also is above the treeline.

Many fells in the Käsivarsi area belong to the Scandinavian mountain range, in contrast to fells in the rest of Finland. Most of the area – more or less all the northern part – is above the treeline.

Flora and fauna

Fauna includes lemming, root vole, grey red-backed vole, least weasel, stout, red fox, Arctic fox, lynx, wolverine – and of course reindeer. Wolves and bears sometimes visit the area. 89 species of bird nest here, including peregrine falcon, snowy owl and lesser white-fronted goose, but only few stay all year, such as willow grouse, rock ptarmigan, gyrfalcon, willow tit and Siberian tit.

Climate

The climate is harsh. The area is at quite high elevation much north of the polar circle. Weather can change drastically in little time. Snow and freezing temperatures are possible also in midsummer. Above the treeline there is little natural shelter against storms.

There is polar night for about two months in winter and midnight sun most of the summer.

The peak seasons are in August and April, the latter by ski.

Get in

Wilderness areas and nature reserves in Enontekiö. Käsivarsi wilderness area is the big one in the north, Malla by the tripoint near Kilpisjärvi is in the western tip.

You may enter the park from anywhere. If passing the border from Norway you should not have any goods needing customs checks (you might be able to clear before your trip).

The obvious starting point is the Kilpisjärvi village at E8, with daily bus connections from Rovaniemi, in summertime also connections from Skibotn by E6 in Norway. There are two main trailheads in the village, in the south and north ends of the village. The official visitor centre is at the southern one (closer to the wilderness area). At the northern one (closer to Malla) there is a private tourist centre, Kilpisjärven Retkeilykeskus.

You can start at many other points along the E8 (national road 21, here called Käsivarrentie), few with marked trails though. There are parking areas at Ropinsalmi (53 km before Kilpisjärvi), Iitto (42 km before), Saarikoski (30 km before) and Kilpisjärvi. The recommended route from E8 in Norway is along the bank of the River Didnujoki via the Lossujärvi cabin.

The wilderness area is at the Nordkalottleden trail and European long distance path E1; you could start from Kautokeino (Sámi: Guovdageaidnu) in the Norwegian Finnmark, from Abisko at the Kungsleden trail in Sweden or from some point between Abisko and Kilpisjärvi. The distance from Kautokeino to Kilpisjärvi along the trail through the wilderness area is 190 km, as is the distance from Abisko to Kilpisjärvi. E1 coincides with Nordkalottleden between Kautokeino and the tripoint and also leads to Abisko.

If you want to visit the Finland-Norway-Sweden tripoint, one option is to take the boat from Kilpisjärvi to there and walk back along Nordkalottleden, through Malla nature reserve, passing northeast of the Kilpisjärvi village.

At high waters the trail from Kautokeino to the wilderness area has some problematic passages. The marked route between Vuomadathytta and Saraelv may be flooded and a higher unmarked route then has to be used. Also the ford over Njargajåkka can be difficult.

In winter there are snowmobile routes and tracks leading to Kilpisjärvi and tracks into the wilderness area. You can drive by yourself or have locals drive you and your luggage.

Air transport e.g. from Kilpisjärvi is possible (seaplane or helicopter).

Fees/Permits

Right to access is applicable (there may be some restricted areas, like the Annjalon nature reserve). Hiking and overnight stays in tents and open wilderness huts are free. You have the permission to make fire from fallen branches and wigs on the ground, unless near a fireplace (use that instead) or if a wildfire warning is in effect, but firewood is sparse and lighting campfires is not recommended.

Beds in reservation huts cost €11/person/night. Prices of rental huts and cabins vary, the huts €70 or €220/day (4–8 persons).

If you intend to fish you can buy the permits at the nature centre (or a local business helping with arrangements). Angling and ice fishing is free in most lakes, but forbidden in flowing water. In the lakes Toskaljärvi, Luohtojärvi and Peeran lammet you need a local permit. For lure and fly fishing you need the national permit and one of two local permits depending on area: Lätäseno (nr 1550) or Enontekiö (nr 1551), the latter including ice fishing and angling in the above mentioned lakes. Equipment (including boots) should be disinfected, e.g. by sufficient drying, if moving between waters with and without the Salmon parasite Gyrodactylus salaris. Check details e.g. at the visitor centre.

To hunt (willow grouse and northern hare) you need a permit for "hunting area 1613 Käsivarsi", which can be bough e.g. at the visitor centre in Hetta. You also need general hunting and arms permits.

To use the snowmobile tracks you need to pay a fee, possibly separately for Metsähallitus tracks and the track network of local businesses.

Get around

Nordkalottleden trail and wilderness hut at Meekonjärvi.

The Nordkalotten trail through the area, with an optional detour to the Halti fell, is the main hiking trail. It is intended for use in summer; markings will not be visible in wintertime. There are some bridges, but minor streams need to be forded.

There is also a shorter hiking trail from Peera (at E8) to Ailakkajärvi at the border of the wilderness area.

Otherwise you have no markings helping you to find your way.

The terrain is rough at many places. You should have sturdy footwear.

In winter you need proper cross-country skis, suitable for both loose and hard snow, the former at least in midwinter. There are marked and maintained tracks in the Kilpisjärvi area, but not in the wilderness area itself. There are snowmobile tracks leading to Halti Fell, Lake Somasjärvi and Lake Lossujärvi, marked with twigs. They can be used, but their maintenance is irregular.

In wintertime there are two Metsähallitus snowmobile tracks through the wilderness area, one between Hetta and Kilpisjärvi, one connecting to this, from Saarikoski parking area to lake Raittijärvi. There are also tracks maintained by local tourist businesses, e.g. to Halti, but driving along these may be restricted to local businesses (tours can be booked). Driving outside the marked tracks requires special permissions (allowed e.g. for reindeer herding).

See

View towards Halti.
Wintry landscape on Dierpmesvárri in March.

Do

Hiking

See Hiking in the Nordic countries for general advice.

Nature trails outside the wilderness area proper:

Shorter hiking trails outside the wilderness area proper:

Otherwise you are probably here for some serious wilderness backpacking, in winter and spring by cross-country skiing. The most popular trails are those to Halti (along Nordkalottleden; about 3000 persons a year), but there is no need to keep to the marked trails. You can get a guide from local businesses.

Trails via Halti:

Canoeing

Snowmobile safaris

Several businesses in Kilpisjärvi arrange snowmobile safaris, which may include a visit to Halti, ice fishing or watching polar lights.

Fishing

Metsähallitus calls the area a fishing paradise. Typical species are Arctic char, grayling, trout, whitefish, perch and pike. Fishermen usually either go on a shorter arranged fishing tour, arrange transportation to a rental hut or cottage, or hike to the fishing grounds.

Angling and ice fishing in lakes are Everyman’s rights, except where fishing is restricted. For lure and fly fishing you need the national and local permits.

Hunting

Hunting willow grouse and northern hare is allowed in the area, given the needed permits.

Buy

There are shops in   Kilpisjärvi,   Kaaresuvanto/Karesuando,   Kautokeino and   Skibotn. Some souvenirs are sold at the visitor centres.

Eat

There are gas or wood heated stoves in the wilderness huts, which make for the easiest cooking, but in season the huts may be crowded and the distances between huts are sometimes long.

There is not much firewood, so relying on open fire for cooking is unwise. A portable stove is recommended.

Drink

Good looking water in the area should be safe, but in periods with warm weather boiling it is recommended.

Sleep

Termisjärvi (Dierpmesjávri) wilderness hut.

There are many huts, but you should probably also be prepared to stay overnight outdoors, with a tent or similar. In summer having reserved beds in the reservation huts may be enough.

There are waste bins at most huts, but you should carry your waste out of the area. Try to follow leave-no-trace camping principles.

Lodging

There are many open wilderness huts in the area, but they may be crowded in peak season, at least along the route to Halti. Along this route and at a few other places there are also reservation huts, where you get a guaranteed bed for a fee. There are also a few rental huts and cabins, which can be booked for a group (price given for all the group). Pets are usually allowed in the open wilderness huts if other visitors agree, but not in the reservation huts.

Open wilderness huts may be used for overnight stay only if you move independently by own muscles (as by foot or ski). Having a break there is allowed regardless. Reservation huts and rental huts may be used by anybody, including commercial groups and persons coming by snowmobile.

There is a folder with instructions in the hut, read them. Check the condition of the stove and gas system. Use firewood and gas sparingly. Sign the guest book, indicating where you are going next. Leave the hut tidy, with chopped fire wood taken inside. Empty the water container and take ashes from the stove to the designated place. Maintenance on the remotest huts is done only every second year, the rest is up to the visitors.

In the open wilderness huts latecomers have an absolute right to the facilities: the ones who had a chance to get warm and dry should put up a tent in case the hut gets crowded. Staying for more than two nights is not allowed (in emergencies you use your own judgement).

The wilderness huts on the trail from Kilpisjärvi to Halti have wood heated stoves for warmth and gas cookers for cooking. In reservation huts (or at the reservation hut side) there is also basic cookware (pot, frying pan, coffee pot). In the open wilderness huts you use your sleeping bags, beds in reservation huts have mattresses, pillows and blankets (use own linen).

Off the trail, returning via Norway or continuing towards Kautokeino the huts mostly lack gas cookers, so food is prepared at the wood heated stove. The remotest open wilderness huts are also often only for six persons, some even for four.

At the Halti trail:

Between Halti and Didnujoki:

In Malla nature reserve:

By the canoe route:


Other (e.g.):

Camping

There are no camping sites with any service in the wilderness area. Camping by the huts is allowed. There are dry toilets by the huts.

Backcountry

Camping in the wilderness area is allowed according to the right to access.

Stay safe

Do not go without a guide or sufficient experience. Do not go alone or without proper clothing and equipment, including good maps. Know how to handle adverse weather and loosing your way.

Tell about your plans (e.g. to the nature centre) and give a hard deadline, when emergency services should be called unless you have announced your return or told about being belated. Sign guest books in the huts on your route, noting any changes in your plans.

Some areas are without mobile phone signal. Try high and open ground. Keep the phone guarded against moisture and off most of the time.

You will have to wait for quite a while for any help. Be prepared to help yourself as much as possible. Do not forget first aid equipment.

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