The Golden Horn (Turkish: Haliç) is the district of Istanbul surrounding the banks of the body of water of the same name, which is a bay of the Bosphorus along its western, European coast.
This article focuses on the areas around the Golden Horn banks west of the city walls. For the southeastern and the northeastern banks, see the articles for the Old City and Galata districts, respectively.
The English name of the bay comes from its Greek counterpart, Hrison Keras (Χρυσόν Κέρας), which literally translates the "Golden Horn". The "horn" part perhaps comes from the deep curve the bay has towards its end in the northwest. The "golden" part is more obscure, but possibly it's a poetic referral to the reflections on the Horn's water during the beautiful sunsets.
The Ottomans named the Horn as Haliç, which in modern Turkish is a geographical term for an "estuary", although in its original Arabic, it simply means a "gulf".
The Golden Horn is the estuary of the Alibeyköy and Kağıthane Rivers (known collectively as the Sweet Waters of Europe by the early European travellers of the centuries past; joining each other northeast of Eyüp near Silahtar), formed when the waters of the Bosphorus flooded their common riverbed in prehistory. Always been the primary harbour of Istanbul, it can even be argued that Istanbul would never have existed in such a grand way if it weren't for this well sheltered, superb haven (and also the superb trading route through and across Bosphorus, by the way).
In the 18th century, the banks of the Horn and the rivers that form it were adorned with palaces and mansions that were surrounded by large tulip gardens (most of which are now lost without a trace), where the Ottoman high society were enjoying themselves in ostentatious parties. The banks of the Kağıthane River was especially favoured, where the partying suburb of Sadabad, "the happy city" was founded (the "sweet waters" simply wasn't a metaphor for the then-azure rivers, but it more was a referral to all the dolce vita going on). This was the Tulip Era (Lale Devri, 1718-1730), or as some call it, the "Debauch Era" (Sefahat Devri), which was later accused as one of the reasons for the economical weakening, and the eventual dissolution of the empire.
All this festive lifestyle abruptly came to an end with the Janisarry-led Patrona Halil Revolt of 1730, when some of the buildings in Sadabad was arsoned, and much later in the 19th century, with the inevitable arrival of the industrial revolution in Turkey, when the banks of the Golden Horn became one of the industrial powerhouses of the Turkish economy and remained as such until up to the 1980s. This had its heavy toll on what was once the "golden" Horn: the industrial effluents in addition to the untreated wastewater from the rapidly expanding city's sewers caused the Horn stinking to the high heaven, as much as that people were actually trying to avoid the avenues along its banks even if those routes meant a shortcut to where they are heading. Then in the late 1980s, the first attempts to bring the Horn to its former glory began. Today its water is much cleaner (although locals will surely advise against, it's borderline clean enough for a swim—the Epiphany celebrations of the local Greek community, in which several swimmers strive to grab the wooden cross thrown into the water by the Patriarch, have recently returned to the Horn after being relocated to the Bosphorus for decades), and its banks are surrounded by pleasant parks giving the city a new fresh breath, rising on what was once the lots of factories. Some of the neighbourhoods along its banks, Eyüp in special, put a special emphasis on celebrating the Ottoman roots of the area.
According to the local convention, the Golden Horn has a southern coast, and a northern one, which are also the designations used in this guide. However, due to the almost meandering shape of the Horn, the "south" is sometimes more like west, and the "north" looks as if it's in the east. Simple rule of thumb: if you are standing on a contiguous piece of land with the Süleymaniye Mosque, the red brick & domed Phanar Greek College, or the Eyüp Mosque, then you are on the southern bank. Conversely, if you are seeing these landmarks on the opposite shore and are on the same land that the Galata Tower or the Kasımpaşa Shipyards stand, then you are on the northern coast.
- The M2 line of the Istanbul Metro crosses the Golden Horn on a bridge (the only above ground section of that line). A station aptly named Haliç right in the middle of the bridge, connected to the both sides with pedestrian bridges, can be a good starting point for trips further into the Horn. Şişhane, the next station to north, is a better bet for the northern coast, though, as it is much closer to the bus and minibus stops which provide transportation to various locations on the northern banks.
- Various buses depart from Eminönü and Taksim for either side of the Horn, many of which cover the entire length up to the end of the Horn (and beyond). Nevertheless, Eminönü is more of a hub for the southern coast, while Taksim is served by a larger number of lines plying along the northern coast.
- The ferries from Üsküdar on the Asian coast of the Bosphorus, which also call at Eminönü near the Galata Bridge, zigzag between several quays on the alternating shores of the Horn and head for as west as Eyüp.
Pedestrianized Old Galata Bridge (Eski Galata Köprüsü), built in 1912, and once connecting Eminönü with Karaköy, is replaced with the current bridge in its former place after it suffered from a big fire in 1992 in the stores on its lower level, and towed to its present upper location on Golden Horn, between Feshane Cultural Centre (Feshane Kültür Merkezi) at the eastern entrance of Eyüp on the southern bank of the Horn and Sütlüce on the northern bank of the Horn, providing an easy link for pedestrians between sides of the Horn. However, the middle section of the bridge is sometimes towed away to provide water circulation along the Horn, so it entirely depends on your luck whether you'll be able to cross the Horn on foot on any given day.
Small ferries zigzaging between neighbourhood quays on each side of the Horn are also another way of crossing to the other side of the Horn.
There is also a chairlift line between downtown Eyüp and Pierre Loti on a hill overlooking the Horn, see below ("Drink" section) for more details.
- Eyüp Mosque Complex (Eyüp Camii), Eyüp. This is the main attraction around this part of the city. The holiest Islamic shrine in the city, the complex includes, right next to the mosque, the tomb of Abu Ayyub al-Ansari (Eyüp Ensari Türbesi), the standard bearer of Prophet Mohammad, died and buried here during the first Muslim siege of Constantinople (674-678 AD). It was him the neighbourhood was named after. Muslims flock—in so huge numbers that sometimes you have to queue for a few minutes before entering the tomb—here also to see a rather uninteresting plaque made of plastic, which is purported to be Mohammad's footprint. The interior of the tomb, covered with fine tiles/faience, is nonetheless well worth a look, however. It is also interesting to see the devout Muslims leaving the place by walking backwards through its exit hallway, as not to turn their backs to al-Ansari's catafalque, though obviously no one expects everyone to quit the place in the same manner. Free.
- Around the mosque complex is cemeteries and tombs all of which date back to Ottoman period, with their distinctively decorated marble headstones. Besides, there are a number of other mosques, streets, and stores surrounding the Eyüp Complex, all pleasantly preserved, and give the visitors an idea of how Ottoman Istanbul should be looking like. Here is where all of those "boys-to-be-circumsized photos" are taken, as it’s a tradition to take the boys in their special Ottoman prince clothes to this particular mosque before the event. In the adjoining streets, you can find shops offering interesting Ottoman-style stuff like wooden toys or traditional salty cookies shaped like a ring (halka) which you cannot easily find elsewhere.
- Feshane, Eski Feshane Caddesi, Eyüp (on the waterfront, just east of downtown Eyüp; get off the bus at 'Defterdar' stop), ☎ +90 212 501-73-26, fax: +90 212 501-73-28. Originally a factory producing fezzes (fes), Ottoman red hats made of felt, adopted in Ottoman Empire in early 1800s as a part of westernizing efforts in lieu of much more traditional turbans. However, as an irony of fate, fez itself was scrapped away in favour of outright western garments during Atatürk's reforms of 1920s and '30s as it was thought to symbolize the old, decidedly oriental regime. Today, Feshane serves as a cultural and exhibition centre, which hosts celebrations on local days, and some temporary art exhibitions. During Ramadan, it becomes some sort of playground showcasing how Ramadan was celebrated during Ottoman era, with traditional sweets and all.
- Aynalıkavak Pavilion (Aynalıkavak Kasrı), Aynalıkavak Cd, Hasköy (bus stop: Aynalıkavak 150 mt; metro: M2 Şişhane 2 km, note that a short section of the main route from the metro station near the Kasımpaşa Naval Hospital is inaccessible for pedestrians so you may have to by pass through the labyrinth-like and steep back alleys), ☎ +90 212 256-97-50, fax: +90 212 256-97-87. Tu-W, F-Su 09:00-16:00 (Nov-Mar), 09:00-17:00 (Apr-Oct); you have to join the guided tours starting every 30 minutes in the high-season, and you may have all the place to yourself and the guide in winter. Started in 1613 by the Ottoman sultan Ahmet I (r. 1603–1617, who also had the Blue Mosque in the Old City built), and extensively renovated by the art-loving Selim III (r. 1789–1807), this sole building, which itself has the distinction of being the only intact structure that dates back to the rule of Ahmet III (r. 1703–1730), set inside a beautiful garden of pools and mature cedar and magnolia trees is the only remaining part of what was once the fourth largest palatial complex in Istanbul, extending all the way to the banks of the Golden Horn (which is now occupied by the derelict buildings of the closed shipyard, which also block part of the view towards the shore). According to the local rumour, its name (which in Turkish means "mirrored poplar") derives from the now absent mirrors gifted by Venice to the palace that were presumably "as tall as the poplars" (aynalar kavak). The highly decorative and colourful interior includes several rooms of original furnitures fit for a sultan, some of which are covered with nacre, and walls embellished with Ottoman poems praising the palace and Selim III. Downstairs is a small museum dedicated to music, which exhibit some of the instruments (violins, ouds, and kamanchehs) and gramophone records owned by Fatma Gevheri Sultana (1904–1980), the granddaughter of Abdülaziz I (r. 1861–1876). While you are outside, also check out the old main entrance (now closed) towards the Golden Horn, topped by a dome. Worth the half hour spent there. 5 TL; students 1 TL (ISIC required).
- Miniaturk. At Sütlüce (on northern shore of the Horn). M-F 9AM-7PM and S-Su 9M-9PM. It was built in 2001 and is the first miniature park in Istanbul (the world's largest miniature park in respect to its model area). The park hosts icons of many cultures and civilizations. Models vary from the Hagia Sophia to Galata Tower, from Safranbolu Houses to the Sumela Monastery in Trabzon, from Qubbat As-Sakhrah to the ruins of Mount Nemrut. In addition, some works that have not survived into the present, such as the Temple of Artemis, the Halicarnassus Mausoleum and Ajyad Castle, were recreated. All former Ottoman Empire in one place. 5 FL, 10 TL for foreigners.
- Rahmi M. Koç Industrial Museum (Sanayi Müzesi), Hasköy Caddesi 27, Hasköy (on the northern shore of the Horn), ☎ +90 212 256 71 53-54. Tu-Su 10:00-18:00 (Apr-Sep: 10:00-20:00). This is a typical industry museum which showcases evolution of machines. Many transport related items including a submarine, classic cars, railway carriages, an out-of-service Bosphorus ferry and a Douglas DC-3 aircraft (possible to go inside) is, among others, in the display. Also houses a typical Istanbul streetscape with its shops and all as how it would look like in the past. 12.5 TL.
- Santral İstanbul, Silahtar Mah., Kazım Karabekir Cad. 1, Eyüp (at the upper end of the Horn, confluence of two creeks; free shuttles every half an hour 8:30AM-9PM daily from Atatürk Cultural Centre in Taksim Square is available in addition to a wide array of public buses which call at the nearby 'Silahtar' stop), ☎ +90 212 311 78 09. Tu-Su 10AM-8PM. A contemporary art museum located in a building converted from an old power plant (first such plant in Istanbul and the Ottoman Empire). Part of the plant was kept in almost exact original condition and now serves as the "Energy Museum". 7 TL (students 3 TL, under 12 and over 65 years of age free).
- Walk the town of Balat. Balat housed the first Jews who settled in Istanbul after the Spanish expulsion. Today, it’s a middle-class neighborhood and as you walk you can see the oldest Jewish houses with the Star of David.
- Akmanoğlu Fırını (near Eyüp Mosque), ☎ +90 212 581 06 39. This is the bakery where halkas mentioned in see section, as well as a number of other traditional cookies, both sweet and salty alike, are produced and sold.
- Lale Lokantasi, Feshane Caddesi, Eyüp (inside Feshane Kültür Merkezi - cultural centre), ☎ +90 212 501 73 72. Traditional Turkish/Ottoman cuisine.
- Restaurants around this neighborhood.
- Pierre Loti is an open air café on a hill overlooking Golden Horn in Eyüp. It’s rumored that a famous French writer used to love to visit this café during his residence in Istanbul. There is a cable (enclosed chairlift) line (which lasts about 3 minutes; departs every 5 min between 8AM-midnight), which offers some nice views, between the shore of Golden Horn and the hill on which café is situated. It’s also possible to walk uphill or to take a taxi.
Golden Horn is not very assertive when it comes to accommodation options and is mainly visited as a day trip from nearby districts, Galata and especially Old City. However, if it attracted your attention much as to arouse a desire to overnight there, you have an option or two.
- Turquhouse Boutique Hotel, Merkez Mah. İdris Köşkü Caddesi, Eyüp (1 km to downtown Eyüp), ☎ +90 212 497 13 13, fax: +90 212 497 16 16. Boutique hotel housed in 7 separate buildings in the same yard. Rooms with en-suite bathrooms, air-con, satellite TV, and wireless internet access. € 90/110/140 for single/double/triple rooms. About 20% cheaper Nov-Mar.
Because of the effects of the refugee crisis due to the ongoing civil war in the neighbouring Syria, and while many refugees are just shy and/or friendly, it's nevertheless best to steer clear of the parks on the banks of the Golden Horn, especially those located near its northwestern end, in lonely times.
A trip to Eyüp can easily be combined with some more sightseeing in areas of old city of Istanbul that are close to the banks of Golden Horn, such as the former Greek neighbourhood of Fener/Phanar, which houses Patriarchate of Constantinople and Bulgarian church of St. Stephen, one of few prefabricated cast iron churches in the world.