Hampshire

"Downton Abbey" is in Hampshire; well, Highclere Castle is anyway

Stretching from the New Forest's coastal beaches in the south west, to London's suburban fringe in the north east, Hampshire is the largest county in South East England. Known as Jane Austen's County after its most famous daughter, Hampshire has a wealth of attractions to offer the traveller. Visitors may see one of England's greatest cathedrals in Winchester, ascend to the top of the South's tallest landmark in Portsmouth or fish for trout in crystal clear chalk rivers.

Hampshire has excellent museums, with a particular focus on military, maritime and aviation history. It is equally possible to visit the former homes of some the county's more celebrated residents, among them Charles Dickens, the Duke of Wellington and Ms Austen herself. If urban Hampshire's port cities and historic market towns don't grab you, then how do you feel about two national parks (the heath and woodland of the New Forest and the rolling chalk hills of the South Downs), hundreds of miles of coastal inlets, islands and estuaries and a rich agricultural heartland dotted with many fine homes and gardens?

Come to Hampshire and discover where the Titanic weighed anchor on its fateful maiden voyage, where Britain first took to the skies - with an American cowboy at the controls - and where, over 1100 years ago, King Alfred the Great founded the nation of England.

Cities, towns and villages

Map of Hampshire

Cities

Towns

A typical parish church in Hampshire

Villages

There are hundreds of picturesque villages in Hampshire, of which the following nine are highlighted:

Other destinations

Understand

Orientation

Although administratively part of South East England, Hampshire is actually midway along the south coast between east and west. Clockwise from the west, it is bordered by the counties of Dorset, Wiltshire, Berkshire, Surrey and West Sussex. To the south is the Solent, a narrow channel of sea separating mainland Hampshire from the Isle of Wight, and the English Channel. Hampshire's coast is characterised by many natural harbours and inlets, which boost the coast's 60 miles "as the crow flies" into a true length of around 250 miles.

Hampshire combines scattered population centres with a typical English rural landscape. The bulk of the population lives in the South Hampshire conurbation - Southampton, Portsmouth and their respective suburbs, connected to Winchester by a corridor of urbanisation. Outside this area, the largest centres of population are Basingstoke and, in the north east corner, the Blackwater Valley towns (Farnborough and Aldershot) which signal the start of London's commuter suburbs. A fair chunk of the South Downs National Park lies within the south eastern portion of the county. Almost all of the south western corner is within the New Forest, another national park. The north and north west of the county are largely rural and retain many similarities with neighbouring Westcountry counties.

The Population of Hampshire was ranked in 2011 at 1,763,000, making it the fifth most populous English county. The entire county is within commuting distance of London and the population is on the whole prosperous. People from Hampshire are known as Hampshire Hogs, due to the county's long association with both boar-hunting and pig-farming (indeed the American breed of pig known as the "Hampshire" is thought to have its origins in the county). Famous Hampshire Hogs include English monarchs Alfred the Great, Henry III and Matilda, novelists Jane Austen and Charles Dickens, engineer Isambard Kingdom Brunel and, more recently, actors Colin Firth and Martin Freeman.

History

King Arthur's Round Table in Winchester Great Hall

Hampshire has a crucial place in both English and British history. Home to the Belgiae Celts prior to 55 AD, Hampshire later saw Roman civilisation at Rockbourne and Silchester (the city of Calleva Atrebatum). Later, the area formed part of the Anglo Saxon kingdom of Wessex, and it was from here that King Alfred of Wessex successfully repelled the Danes and united all the Saxon states into the first unified Kingdom of England. Alfred, who remains the only English monarch to be posthumously honoured with the title of "the Great", was celebrated for his reform of the English justice system and the improvement of his subjects' quality of life and literacy. He made Winchester the new nation's capital, a status retained until the Normal Conquest when William the Conqueror made the already much larger city of London his seat of power.

Under the Normans, much of Hampshire became royal hunting ground, the most famous domain of which was the New Forest, planted on the orders of William himself. Many of Hampshire's castles date from this period of the Middle Ages, although Henry VIII continued to build new fortresses along the Solent, many of which were reinforced and expanded during the Napoleonic Wars. Both Southampton and Portsmouth became important harbours during this period, the former for commercial traffic and the latter as a naval dockyard. Among the famous vessels to sail from Southampton were the Mayflower and the RMS Titanic (which was largely staffed by more than 500 citizens of Southampton, most of whom perished on board) and from Portsmouth the Mary Rose and HMS Victory. Many of the earliest European settlers of the United States originated from Hampshire.

The military connection continued through the 19th and 20th centuries, when large Army garrisons were established around Aldershot and aviation pioneers moved in to Farnborough, where the first powered flight in British skies took place in 1908, flown by American Wild West showman Samuel Franklin Cody. Among other aeronautic developments to take place in the county, Hampshire hosted the development of the Spitfire fighter plane, the first jet aircraft and much of the engineering work required to bring the supersonic liner Concorde into existence.

Talk

The variety of English spoken in Hampshire is similar to the rest of the South East, and is relatively close to the "accentless" standard Received Pronunciation (RP). In the far south and west of the county, many people speak in an accent that has a Westcountry twang to it - the original Hampshire accent before RP's dominance - and some older residents even speak in dialect, though this is becoming increasingly uncommon as that generation dies off.

The area around Aldershot and Farnborough is home to thousands of Nepali speakers, perhaps the greatest number outside the Himalayas.

Get in

More detailed information can be read at South East England#Get in

By road

The main road routes from London are the A3 (which heads to Portsmouth, bypassing the towns of Liss, Liphook and Petersfield) and the M3 Motorway (which runs to Southampton, via Farnborough, Basingstoke, Winchester and Eastleigh). The M27 'South Coast Motorway' runs from the New Forest to Portsmouth, via Southampton. The A33, A34 and A36 offer connections from the north and the A35 and A303 bring traffic from the west. The A31 is a feeder route of the A3, allowing faster journey times to Winchester from Surrey, Sussex and Kent than the M3 can offer.

By plane

Hampshire has its very own international airport on the South Coast, at Southampton. The county is also well served by London's international and domestic airports, with both Heathrow and Gatwick close by.

By train

Eurostar run trains from numerous destinations in France and Belgium to London St Pancras. Onward journey times (by Tube, and then rail from Waterloo station) to Hampshire take between one and three hours.

Rail services to and from the rest of the UK are good. Trains from London Waterloo and west along the coast are operated by South West Trains, while services from London Victoria and east along the coast are provided by Southern Railway, with those from the North and Midlands run by Cross Country Trains.

By boat

Portsmouth, as a major international ferry port, receives ferries from Jersey and Guernsey (in the Channel Islands), Cherbourg, Caen, Le Havre and St. Malo (in France) and Santander (in Spain).

Get around

Vintage signposts are a common sight on Hampshire's country lanes

By road

Private vehicle is the best the way to get around Hampshire, especially for those travelling to smaller towns and the countryside. The main roads in the county are the:

By public transport

If you intend to remain within the major towns and cities, public transport is a very viable option. The most practical mode is by train, though there are also bus services throughout the county.

By train

Hampshire is well-connected by rail, with several radial lines coming from London, as well as an east-west network along the coast. Most towns and even some villages have a railway station with regular services.

Most rail services within Hampshire are operated by South West Trains, though some service patterns are run by other operators. The best website to find timetables and book tickets is National Rail Enquiries.

One line in Hampshire stands out for still being served by steam locomotives and vintage diesel trains, the Mid Hants Railway. This does not form part of the National Rail network and tickets must be bought separately, but this can be a fantastic way to travel through the Hampshire countryside. The Watercress Line, as it is also known, links Alton's National Rail station to Alresford.

By bus

Most local bus services are operated by Stagecoach South. Bus travel in Hampshire is expensive and slow when compared with the buses in London and other large cities, but this can be an excellent way to travel short distances in and between towns.

See

Hampshire also has a number of famous sons and daughters, whose former homes you can visit. Jane Austen's house in Chawton, Gilbert White's House in Selborne and Charles Dickens' Birthplace in Portsmouth are among the most-visited.

Do

Eat

Hampshire is prime fly-fishing country and its cuisine is heavily influenced by freshwater fish.

Hampshire's food is typical among English counties, although there are some local specialities well worth sampling. First of these has to be the county's pork products; bacon, ham, meat patties and sausages, from both farmed pigs and wild boar - the people aren't called Hampshire hogs for nothing!

Also on offer locally is game (particularly venison, pheasant and rabbit), freshwater fish (most commonly trout and salmon) and watercress, an industry which Hampshire dominates. There are also several award-winning cheeses from Hampshire, including buffalo Cheddar, Gouda and Brie as well as local varieties such as New Forest Blue, Hampshire Rose and various oak-smoked cheeses. Much of the countryside is arable land, so farms often sell their fruit and vegetable produce in the relevant season, and there are "pick your own" sites for fruits such as raspberries and strawberries.

In addition to the more traditional Indian and Thai curry houses, there are many Nepalese restaurants in Hampshire, particularly in the north east, where many thousands of Nepalese people have made their home.

Hampshire Fare is the official body which promotes the county's food and drink and also puts on events and markets where you can taste Hampshire:

Drink

The nightlife is Hampshire is quite poor outside Southampton, which itself boasts some of the best clubs in the south. Other than that, travelling to Bournemouth, Brighton or London could be a better option to guarantee a good night out

Go next

This article is issued from Wikivoyage - version of the Friday, February 19, 2016. The text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike but additional terms may apply for the media files.