Great Wall of China
The Great Wall of China (长城 Chángchéng) stretches from Liaoning Province through Hebei Province, Tianjin Municipality, Beijing Municipality, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, Shanxi Province, Shaanxi Province, and Ningxia Autonomous Region to Gansu Province within the country of China.
The Great Wall of China can be visited at many places along its length of several thousand kilometers. Its condition ranges from excellent to ruined and access from straightforward to quite difficult. Note that different sections also each have their own admission fees, e.g. if you want to hike from Jinshaling to Simatai then you probably have to pay twice.
The Great Wall, as we know it, is actually a series of several walls built at different times by different emperors.
- First Great wall: built by the Qin Dynasty 221–207 BC
- Second Great Wall: built by the Han Dynasty 205–127 BC
- Third Great Wall: built by the Jin Dynasty 1200 AD
- Fourth Great Wall: built by the Ming Dynasty 1367–1644
The other walls are now mostly ruins. It is the Ming wall that turns up in all the photos.
First Great Wall
The First Great Wall was ordered built in 214 BC by Qin Shih Huang Ti after he had finished consolidating his rule and creating a unified China for the first time. The wall was designed to stop raids by the Xiongnu raiders from the north. 500,000 laborers were used during the 32-year building period to create the First Great Wall.
Although the wall worked at keeping out enemies, it did nothing to stop internal pressures which lead to a regime change in 206 BC and the new leadership of the Han Dynasty. The first Han emperor, Gaozu, was quick to see the benefits of the wall against the raiders and ordered more wall to stretch out as far as Zhaoxiang, Gansu Province.
Second Great Wall
Over 70 years later, the Han Dynasty were still fighting the raiders since the Great Wall had been left to deteriorate and the raiders had breached it in several places. In 130 BC, Emperor Wudi of the Han Dynasty embarked on a program of extending, rebuilding and fortifying the original First Great Wall. After the emperor finished adding more regions under his rule in 127 BC, he ordered a major expansion program that created the Second Great Wall, outposts in Zhangye, Wuwei, Jiuquan, Dunhuang and Yumenguan in Gansu Province and Lopnor and other outposts in Xinjiang Province. The Great Wall was extended down the Hexi Corridor through which the Silk Road traders would travel on the way to and from the West.
When the Han Dynasty fell apart into the three kingdoms of the Wei, Shu and Wu, the northern Wei kingdom decided to continue maintaining the Great Wall so that they could keep out the Rouran and Qidan nomads from the northern plains. Despite the constant maintenance, the Wall kept being breached by the Rouran nomads. Additional walls were built inside and outside of the Great Wall by the different kingdoms. Eventually the Wei kingdom merged with the unifying Sui kingdom and was overthrown by the Tang Dynasty in 618 AD.
Nothing more was done to the Great Wall until the reign of the Liao and Song dynasties. The Liao Dynasty controlled the north while the Song Dynasty controlled the south. The Liao were troubled mainly by a tribe in the northeast region of China called the Nuzhen (known as Manchu in Mandarin) so they built defensive walls along the Heilong and Songhua rivers. These failed to stop the raiders from coming south.
Third Great Wall
In 1115, the Nuzhen established the Jin Dynasty and since they were from the north themselves, understood that the Mongols were right behind them. The Jin emperor ordered the construction of a Third Great Wall to be built in Heilongjiang Province and Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. The walls built had the characteristics of having ditches running along the walls full length.
Despite the impressive fortifications built, the Mongols overthrew the Jin in 1276 and established the Yuan Dynasty. During the Yuan dynasties rule, the Wall fell into deep disrepair and in 1368, the Chinese Ming Dynasty walked right in and took control.
The Ming Dynasty, after getting rid of the Mongols, determined that they would never be taken again by outsiders. The first emperor of the Ming Dynasty, Hongwu, re-established manning of the Great Wall, fortresses and garrisons were built along the wall, and the fort at Jiayuguan was built in 1372 at the western end of the wall. The second Ming emperor, Yongle, turned his focus outward from the empire and sent out explorers and diplomats into the big, wide world.
Fourth Great Wall
It was not until the battle of Tumu against the Mongols that renewed interest in reinforcing the Great Wall occurred. Between 1569 and 1583, the best-known parts of the Great Wall were built, the Fourth Great Wall. The reinforced wall managed to repel Mongols several times.
The Manchu retook China in 1644 and formed the Qing Dynasty. From this point on, the Wall slowly started to fade away while stone and rocks were taken from the Wall for building projects and homes. The Cultural Revolution definitely took its toll out on the wall when local people and local governments were encouraged to help dismantle the Great Wall.
It was not until 1984 that President Deng Xiaoping started a restoration and protection project of the Great Wall. In 1987, the Great Wall was declared a Cultural World Heritage Site by UNESCO.
The geography of Northern China ranges from mountainous in northeast Liaoning and Hebei Provinces, through the grasslands of Ningxia, semi-arid desert of China's loess plateau, and borders the sand dunes of the Tengger desert of Inner Mongolia. It is the area around Hebei and Beijing that most people associate with the Great Wall, but most of the Great Wall lies in the desert regions of the country.
Flora and fauna
Chinese wildlife is diverse, considering all of the different habitats available along the length of the Great Wall. From the rare Siberian tiger in the northeast to the protected and rare Giant Panda, which lives in southern Gansu, Sichuan, and Shaanxi, you never know what you might see on a given day.
Wild mammals can be found in the north, such as the Manchurian weasel, brown and black bears, northern pika, and mandarin vole. Deer species include Sika deer, roe deer and the long-sought-after spotted deer, which has many uses in Chinese medicine.
The birds of the region include various pheasants, black grouse, pine grosbeak, various woodpeckers, mandarin duck, and the fairy pitta, a rare migratory bird. Cranes are especially revered in China. Common, demoiselle, white-naped, hooded, and red-crowned cranes all breed in China.
You can find many tonic plants along the Great Wall, such as the rare ginseng (Panax ginseng). Chinese medicine has had many thousands of years to discover and use these tonic plants for the benefit of mankind.
Northern China has all four seasons and they arrive with a vengeance. Summer and winter temperatures normally reach extremes of over 40°C and –20°C respectively.
As the Great Wall of China is rather on the long side, there are a large number of places to visit it. The following list is divided by province/municipality.
The most popular sites can be visited in one day starting from Beijing.
Badaling and Juyongguan
Badaling and Juyongguan are nearest Beijing, and these two are among the most crowded sections of the Great Wall. On the weekdays, Badaling is not too crowded, and it is the easiest to reach affordably, i.e. without hiring a taxi. From the Southwest corner of Tiananmen Square, take the number 5 bus (¥1 public bus or ¥0.4 if you have IC card, ~10min froom drum/bell tower or ~30min from Qianmen) to the last stop or the line 2 subway to Jishuitan station (¥2). Walk east on the north side of the road to the bus station. Take bus number 919 (¥12 one way, ¥4.80 one way with pre-paid card, air conditioned coach bus) to Badaling (877 seems to have the same path/cost). The last bus from Beijing to Badaling leaves at around 12:00, the last bus from Badaling to Beijing at around 16:00. For the ride back, better arrive half an hour early if you want to sit down during the 1-hour drive!
Note: There are many different 919 buses. The one to Badaling is at the very rear (farthest east) of the station. Be very wary of men in blue jackets posing as transit workers. They will lie all the way up to the bus door (and in front of real transit workers) by saying there are no more buses, it is the wrong bus, or that they are overpriced, etc. and try to get unknowing passengers to take their overpriced taxi and/or shuttle. The real transit workers around the area will be of no help (as they may be taking a cut), so you must ask the ticket giver directly on the bus if it is the correct bus. It will be only ¥12.
You can also take a 919 home for ¥12, which means that you can stay as long as you like. Alternatively, take the train from Beijing North Station (¥14 one way for hard seat, which is still nicer than most airplanes, with plenty of leg room). But make sure to call ahead or check online for the times as they change often.
For those that like to travel by train, a relatively underused way of travelling to the Badaling great wall is via a train from Beijing North Station or Qinghuayuan Station (the latter is a small station not too far away from the Zhichunlu subway intersection station; guaranteed no queues, but you may not be able to find a seat at busy times). The schedule posted on seat61 seems to be more or less accurate, but always double check on cnvol.com. Travelling by train allows you time to visit the wall at your own leisure, bypassing the need to go to the Ming Tombs and random stores. The train has very large viewing windows, allowing you breathtaking views of the scenery and the great wall even before you arrive at Badaling. Take a seat on the left as the train leaves Beijing to get the best views. Tickets costs ¥6 each way, they must be purchased the same day of travel and only from the station of departure. There is no time on the ticket so you may use the ticket for any train that day. If you don't want to wait in lines to buy tickets you may also use your subway card to board and pay for the trip. If you can't find empty seats you can hang out in the nearly empty dining car, which has a couple of comfortable booths with tables. Upon arrival at Badaling station you'll need to make a left turn and walk 800m to the great wall entrance. Badaling entrance fee is ¥45 (discount available for students). Audio tour service ¥15/40 for Chinese/English + ¥200 deposit.
The hike is still a challenge with plenty of steep hills, so once you get a bit into the wall the crowd thins quickly. On weekdays, there aren't any vendors chasing you on the wall; they stay in the little town area. In addition, there are Sun Bears that you can feed carrots to for ¥3 in the little town. Don't take the ¥100 tours that people offer you outside the Forbidden City or at Tiananmen Square - you only get 2 hours at the wall, and then you go to the Ming Tombs (read: big hill) and have to eat lunch; in addition, they can cancel the bus on you, they don't leave until the bus is full, and you have to stay with your tour group (with the loud mega phone and all) in order to get back to the city. Full walk path is: tower/path closed <> Guizhou pavilion for the stele <> (cable car/?closed) <> tower <> path to exit / great wall museum <> (sliding car, ?stairs) <> 6th tower <> 8th tower (top; cable car nearby ~100m) <> tower <> 10th tower in the north (stairs) <> tower/path closed. Cable/sliding car costs ~¥30/60 one/both way and it takes ~2-3h to do the whole wall depending on your fitness/weather/crowd.
In winter, expect to loose 5°C between Beijing and the Wall. This plus the wind from the mountain, you will cherish every layer of clothes you can have. The vendors will be here to sell everything you may have forgotten, although the price is not reasonable. For the good part : the crowd is then much lighter, and almost nobody go after the first peak. The winter sun and, if you're lucky, the snow will give you amazing views on the walls.
Located near the Badaling Great Wall, the Shuiguan Great Wall is sometimes called the 'Badaling-Shuiguan Great Wall'. It often happens that innocent visitors are guided to the Shuiguan Great Wall instead of their original destination - the Badaling Great Wall, especially during holidays or peak periods. Travel China Guide (TCG) kindly reminds you that no matter which wall you want to visit, please consult our guide-books and web-site beforehand. Especially check the admission fees.
The wall was opened to the public in 1995 after repair. Besides climbing the wall, you can also visit the Genghis Khan Palace, the Stone Buddha Temple, Luotuo Peak (Camel Peak) and the Great Wall Stele Forest nearby.
Mutianyu is magnificent. It's slightly further than Badaling, equally well restored, significantly less crowded, and has greener surroundings. It has a gondola and ski lift to get onto and off of the wall (though walking via stairs is also possible) and a toboggan ride down! Misplaced, but fun. However, it's not as easy to reach via public transportation and most often involves a taxi ride of some sort.
The only direct bus to the Mutinyau Great Wall section was certain runs of bus 867, which only runs during the tourist season (March 15 through November 15), but as of June 2014, this extension has been canceled and has not been reinstated for the 2015 season. However, if you can confirm that #867 is running to Mutianyu Great Wall, here are the instructions as of 3 May 2012:
- Bus #867 to Mutinyau departs at 07:00 and 08:30 from the Dongzhimen outer bus lot, which is not the same as the Dongzhimen transport hub (and there are no signs, at least in English, directing you here from the subway station). It is not easy to find this, but if you exit out of Dongzhimen subway's B or E exits, continue walking straight (east) along Dongzhimen Outer Street with the transit hub and Guosheng Fashion center on your left passing the bus driveway into the transit terminal until you reach the first stoplight, then turn left and continue north along Dongzhimen Outer Byway past the second driveway used by buses entering Dongzhimen transit hub. Shortly after this, the road will reach a stoplit intersection and bend a bit to the right. Immediately past this, turn left into what looks like a bus parking area, and there will be bus waiting/boarding lanes. At the back of this lot will be a large sign showing bus #867. This walk can take up to 15 minutes from the time you arrive at Dongzhimen subway, so be sure to allow enough time. Alternatively, if you can find Dongzhimen subway exit H, this should bring you directly up into the Dongzhimen transit hub; if you can then wander between the buses and find your way out the northeast driveway exit, turn left (north) and it's a short walk to the aforementioned stoplit intersection and bus parking area. Note that you may be hawked heavily by private taxis and mini buses along the way or may find someone official-looking stationed at the bus stop telling you the bus is not running (which as of June 2014 appears to actually be true). This bus costs ¥16 each way (¥6.4 with metrocard) and takes 2.5 or more hours, depending on traffic.
The other option is slightly more complicated but actually faster (about 1.5-1.75 hours in total for bus+taxi, depending on traffic). You can use bus #936 or #916, which makes frequent runs all day from Dongzhimen transit hub (inside the big garage, kind of in the middle) to Huairou, which is 17 km away from the wall and around 60 km from Beijing. If possible, wait for the bus marked 916快 (916 Express), as this takes the motorway and skips most local stops, thus getting you to Huairou in just over an hour; it should depart every 20 minutes. You can ride it to the end of the line at Huairou bus transit center, where there are usually taxis, private cars, and minibuses who will offer to take you to Mutinayu. Alternatively, there are reports that you can get off early on the north end of Qingchun Road or North Street (near the big roundabout), where there will be a large gathering of taxis and minibuses for hire (this is on the side of town closer to Mutianyu, so it will be marginally quicker than riding the full loop to the bus transit center).
The actual bus stop at Huairou Bei Da Jie (怀柔学馆中心--North Street) is not a bus terminal or anything with a 'Great Wall' on it - just a normal street bus stop shortly after the bus makes a right turn (from north to east) at a very large roundabout at the corner of Qing Chun and Bei Da Jie streets. When you get off the bus, you need to cross the road, as you will need to be going in the opposite direction (west) to go to Mutianyu to catch a taxi or minibus. The hawking is unbearable and extreme so be prepared.
From either place, you will have to take a taxi (¥20, but you have to bargain as the entry price is about ¥50). Be aware that it is likely that taxi drivers in league with the bus driver (who may be on the bus from Dongzhimen) will try and get you to come off the bus at the wrong stop in order to ensure that you take their taxi (upwards of ¥400!). Also beware of people that offer to help you at Dongzhimen who are in league with the taxi drivers and will point you to the wrong bus (980 to Miyun--do not go to Miyun!), and you will end up having to backtrack to Huairou and pay double for the taxi (Great wall trek China expeditions is known to do this). Prices vary around ¥30 per person for a return trip with waiting 2h, plus ¥5 for the parking when going out.
(For the super-budget traveler, it is possible to connect from Huairou to Mutianyu by public transit, but it's not for the faint of heart. For one detailed account of how to do it, check out this forum post.
For the return journey, the 867 (if it is running!) leaves at 14:00 and 16:00 from parking lot 3 - the same place it dropped you off at Mutianyu if you caught it in the morning. Note that on Sunday 16:00 bus might be really crowded. It is an official looking bus with a number on it, so don't be fooled by any other drivers (e.g. minibuses) who try and steal your business. Also, do not be fooled by any taxi drivers who say "no bus!". A post in the western part of the parking lot with the bus schedule is usually hidden behind a minivan or another big car parked in front of it to confuse visitors. If 867 is not running, hire a minibus or private car to Huairou Bei Daa Jie (怀柔学馆中心) or Huairou bus transit center, where you can catch the 916快 (916 Express) back to Dongzhimen.
As of 2015, the entrance fee is ¥45 (¥25 for students only with ID containing a photo; as of May 2015, students were "under 18 only"). In addition to the entrance fee, the gondola and/or the ski-run/toboggan up to the wall costs (as of May 2015) more than the wall entrance: ¥80 one-way or ¥100 round-trip for adults and half of that for children. There's also a shuttle bus from the entrance complex up to the bottom of the gondola station--well worth the ¥15 round-trip. You buy all of these tickets at a new, fancy ticket window right next to the main road, although the gondola and ski-lift/toboggan tickets are sold from separate windows, as they are operated by different companies. Note that you cannot combine a trip up the gondola and down the toboggan (or vice-versa--up the ski-lift and down the gondola) into a single round-trip as they are two different companies. Once you purchase the tickets, you'll walk along a fancy walkway between shops with hawkers and restaurants (if you see a big Burger King, you'll know you're on the right path) up to the shuttle bus stop. Board the bus, which runs every few minutes, for the 5-minute ride up the hill to the base of the gondola and toboggan/ski-lift.
Once there, you have three choices (depending on which tickets you bought): ride up the gondola, ride up the ski-lift, or walk up the mountain. The gondola takes you up to watchtower #14, more towards the north end of the restored section of the wall, and quite a bit higher in elevation. The ski-lift takes you up to watchtower #6, towards the south end of the restored section of the wall and quite a bit lower in elevation. Last, you can hike up to the wall on a footpath; one previous edit to this wiki indicated it's a 15-minute walk, but other sources indicate 40+ minutes, depending on level of fitness. The footpath is free, so it's a good option for the budget-travel crowd.
One suggested itinerary: book a one-way trip up the gondola to watchtower #14 and back down on the toboggan from watchtower #6. It's a little more expensive than a round-trip on the gondola or ski-lift/toboggan, but it's a mostly downhill walk of a little over 1 kilometer with some great views of the wall stretching down the ridge in front of you, so it's easy on the legs and gives you a good feel for the wall.
Once you're up on the wall, if you're not afraid of walking through some shrubbery and you've got some grip on your shoes, continue on past the restored section and head to the highest local watchtower (#23). You will be greatly rewarded for your effort! Turn left from the top of the gondola (tower #14) and hike up to tower 23. You'll know when you've passed tower #19, because there will be 450 steps in front of you climbing the steep face of the mountain. At tower #20, you'll probably get lots of applause from a souvenir vendor for having completed the steep climb, and she may even offer to take your picture, after which of course you'll be expected to peruse her collection of memorabilia for sale. Just up from tower #20 is a sign advising "no tourist section," but everyone ignores the sign, and there are even vendors just above the sign coaxing you forward to buy their goods. Climb the steps and you'll soon see signs of the incomplete rebuilding and maintenance of the wall. At tower #21, the wall turns sharply left and the terrain flattens out a bit, and then there's one final small climb up to tower #23, where a man with a sign advising "last snacks for 10km" maintains a presence. Then the exciting part comes: just after tower #23, there's a sign saying "Danger! No visitors," which of course beckons you to continue. Here, the wall's maintenance stops and you get to see the ruins of the actual original wall. The brush is overgrowing the pathway and stones have been worn and lifted, but the pathway is wide enough to continue (mostly) safely (at your own risk, of course). Push through the brush for about five minutes and you'll come to a grand view of tower #24, the first of the completely unrestored towers, with the wall climbing the mountain peak in the distance. Well worth the trip; if you're in moderate shape, expect the round-trip from tower #14 to take about an hour to an hour and a half (plus pauses to catch your breath).
The toboggan down is a curious addition to the area and makes it feel a bit theme-parky, but it's quite fun and quite long--over 1.5 km long and an elevation drop of 100 meters. Just don't get stuck behind a super-cautious slowpoke: the toboggan run is a one-lane affair, and most of the fun is racing down like you're on an Olympic luge track. Getting trapped behind someone too afraid to go more than 10 kph will make you regret spending the money on the attraction.
The last buses to Beijing Dongzhimen from Huairou city are the 936 at 17:00 while the service of the 916 ends at 19:00. Without the Beijing transportation card (that you can purchase at any metro station) the price is ¥16, but with the electronic Yikatong card, expect to pay less than ¥5. See the details about the card on in the Beijing "Get around" section.
If you miss the bus, there is accommodation to be found near the shops in Huairou. There is a tourist information office that remains open during normal office hours, though it may seem closed due to lack of visitors. They will be able to help you find accommodation that is licensed to take foreigners, should you need it. The nearby "Yanxi Nightless Valley" area is full of small forest resorts, where you can pay around ¥100 for a fresh, farmed trout. Stay in the valley the night before, then hire a taxi out direct to one of the nearby Great Wall sections in the morning.
The Schoolhouse (a restaurant and lodging company in Mutianyu) also offers a schoolbus that goes to and from the Kempinski Hotel in Beijing to their restaurant that is a 10 minute walk from the wall on Saturdays and Sundays. It departs Beijing at 09:00 and the Schoolhouse at 18:00. The cost is ¥100 for a one-way trip or ¥120 for a same day round trip. Reservations must be made by 18:00 on the Thursday before you want to take it. If you are worried about taking a public bus but don't want to pay for a whole tour, this can be a good reliable option.
Huanghuacheng one of the most well built sections of the Great Wall that caused the beheading of Lord Cai, the builder, for mismanagement and waste
Gubeikou, Jinshanling and Simatai
Gubeikou, Jinshanling and Simatai are a bit farther from Beijing than other sections, but the extra time it takes to get there is rewarded with a very significant reduction in crowding and tourist traps. Services are also limited, however; make sure you bring your own supply of water and extra film. The most authentic part of the wall is at Simatai; the wall here is of original construction unlike Badaling. These three locations are 80 miles northeast of Beijing. As of June 17, 2010, the section at Simatai is closed for repairs (probably for at least 2 years). Simatai is closed but you can still sleep on its section and do the trek from Simatai to Jinshanling.
Many published photos of the Great Wall are from this area. 'Jiankou', is translated as 'Arrow Nock' in English, because the shape of the mountain is like an arrow, with the collapsed ridge opening as its arrow nock.
There are many famous sections of Jiankou Great Wall, such as 'The Nine-Eye Tower', an important command post during the ancient wars. It has three layers, and there are nine holes which look like nine eyes on each side. 'The Beijing Knot' is the meeting point for three walls coming from different directions. 'The Sky Stair', is a precipitous stair whose angle of elevation is 70 to 80 degrees. It leads to 'The Eagle Flies Facing Upward', a watch tower built on the lofty peaks. It is so dangerous that even eagles have to fly facing upward to reach the top. 'Zhengbei Tower' is the right place to appreciate the beauty of the sunrise and the sunset.
- Shanhaiguan, at the Old Dragon's Head, the wall juts out into the sea. To get there from Beijing takes about 3 hours by train.
- Panjiakou Reservoir - sunken part of the Great Wall
- Huangyaguan - worth a visit for its water run-off controls, well-preserved towers, challenging hiking and striking scenery
- Hushan - can be explored from Dandong
- Xingcheng - a Ming dynasty walled town
- Jiumenkou - located 18 km east of "The First Pass Under Heaven' at Shanhaiguan. There you can see the only existing Great Wall section above water, as well as a Great Wall tunnel within the mountain.
- The Outer Wall of Shanxi - Li'erkou to Deshengbu, Juqiangbu to Laoniuwan, and along the Yellow River
- The Inner Wall of Shanxi - Yanmenguan, Guangwu Old City, Ningwu Pass and Niangziguan
- The Eastern Ningxia Wall - Hongshan Castle and Water Cave Gully (Shui Dong Gou)
- The Northern Ningxia Wall - in the area of Helanshan
- The Western Ningxia Wall - Zhenbeibu and Sanguankou
- Wuwei - garrison town
- Minqin - oasis town
- Zhangye - garrison headquarters
- Jiayuguan - Fort at Jiayu Pass, nicknamed "Last Fort Under Heaven"
- Lanzhou - former walled town that now is capital of Gansu Province
- Hike from Jinshanling to Simatai The majority of the wall east of Jinshanling is also unrestored. The hike from Jinshangling to Simatai is roughly 10 km. It is a significant hike in distance but more so in the elevation change, but you will be rewarded with spectacular views and a good day of exercise. Expect to spend anywhere from 2.5 hours to 6 hours on the wall, depending on your fitness level, ambition and frequency of photo ops. When you are half way between the two sections, there are hardly any tourists. In fact, more foreign tourists are seen doing this thorough hike than domestic Chinese tourists. Comfortable shoes and clothes are needed, as you will be hiking on moving bricks sometimes combined with steep climbs. Water and snacks should be in your backpack. But you will find some local vendors selling water and sometimes snacks on the wall. When you descend down from Simatai, there is a zip line available for ¥40. It's roughly 400m, and is over a river. It will take you down to the other side of the river, and includes a short boat ride back to catch your ground transport. During the middle of this hike, collectors will charge you again because you are entering another part of the Wall. If you are going between sections, there is little you can do about it other than turn back. As of June 2010, the Simatai section is closed for repairs, so you can only hike to the western end and then have to turn back.
- Visit the Great Wall Museum Down the "Badaling Pedestrian Street" and up a hill behind the "Circle Vision Theater" is the under-appreciated Great Wall Museum. The walk-through exhibits provide a good overview of the wall's multi-dynasty history, along with many artifacts from those time periods and photo-worthy models of watchtowers, scaling ladders, etc. The bathrooms are also probably the cleanest you'll find at Badaling (there's even a Western-style toilet). Best of all, admission is free! (closed on Monday, 09:00-16:00). Great wall circle-vision theater (40y/pers).
- Downhill on the toboggan run The Mutianyu section offers two chairlift lines which run to different parts of the Great Wall section, a more modern one with bubble cabins and a less modern one with two-seater chairs. If you feel up to it and the weather is clear, the return ticket for the less modern lift is also good for a ride down the toboggan run. Though if you prefer, tickets can easily be purchased separately for the toboggan ride of course - just walk up to the ticket office at the beginning of the ride, then off you go down the wall. Note that the tickets for the lifts cost the same but are not interchangeable. If you can't read Chinese check the picture on the ticket, and if you get wrong one with a picture of the bubble cabins, it's not a problem to immediately get your money back and take it to the other ticket counter.
Bring a jacket against the wind or cold in the chillier seasons. In summer you will need lots of water, but there are plenty of vendors at the most visited sections. Be prepared for the possibility of sudden, short, but rather violent thunderstorms.
Do not leave any trace of your visit. Even if it is not an uncommon sight, resist the urge to add your name to the carvings in the wall, or take a piece home as a souvenir. If the wall should be damaged by your actions, the authorities may very well take action with fines and other punishments.
Hiking as a recreational sport is not well understood yet in China so the etiquette of crossing state and private land has not yet been established. Remember that the Wall is mostly mud and poorly supported stones, and that you are on your own if you're outside the maintained areas. Even if you are not walking on the wall, you will find few trails to follow and at some parts, the area the Wall traverses are vertical, treacherous and very unsafe. Besides that, it is difficult to obtain clean drinking water and some areas may even have no water at all. Other areas will have manmade obstacles, like roads and motorways that have solid fencing. Villages where you could get supplies may be few and far between. Some may take you miles away from the Wall. Poor cartography is still a problem here since maps of less than 1:450,000 are not easy to get a hold of due to the military applications of such maps. Besides that, guides who know the areas along the Great Wall are few and far between. The last item to think about regarding hiking the Great Wall is that China has no system of mountain/wilderness rescue personnel. You will be on your own should something happen to you.
Scams - Beware of bus scams that may ruin your day. Also try to avoid organized tours to the Great Wall costing ¥100-150. These are advertised by people handing out flyers around the Forbidden City in Beijing for example (the real bus service to the Great Wall only costs ¥20!). Also, the driver might just stop and set you off before your destination.
Badaling: Take bus 919 back to Beijing (¥12) or the train from either the Badaling or Qinglong Qiao stations (¥14). The last bus 919 leaves at 17:00.
For other sections, hopefully you've come with a tour that is picking you up from that section. Taxis back to Beijing can be quite expensive (even from Badaling, it will probably be over ¥100).