- For other places with the same name, see Florence (disambiguation).
Florence (Italian: Firenze) is the capital of the region of Tuscany in Italy, with a population of about 366,500. The city is a cultural, artistic and architectural gem. The birthplace of the Italian Renaissance, Florence was the home to powerful families, creative geniuses and scientific masterminds who left their legacies in the city's many museums and art galleries.
Politically, economically, and culturally Florence was the most important city in Europe for around 250 years, from some time before 1300 until the early 1500s.
Florentines reinvented money, in the form of the gold florin. This currency was the engine that drove Europe out of the "Dark Ages", a term invented by Petrarch, a Florentine whose family had been exiled to Arezzo. They financed the development of industry all over Europe, from Britain to Bruges, Lyon and Hungary. They financed the English kings during the Hundred Years' War. They financed the papacy, including the construction of the papal palace in Avignon and the reconstruction of St. Peter's and the Vatican when the papacy returned to Rome from the "Babylonian captivity".
Dante, Petrarch, and Boccaccio pioneered the use of the vernacular, the use of a language other than Latin. In their case, Tuscan, which, because of them, became Italian. Because Dante, et al., wrote in Tuscan, Geoffrey Chaucer, who spent a lot of time in Northern Italy and who stole Boccaccio's little stories, wrote in English. Others started writing in French and Spanish. This was the beginning of the end of Latin as a common language throughout Europe.
The Florentines, perhaps most notably Filippo Brunelleschi (1377-1466) and Leon Batist'Alberti (1404-1472) invented both Renaissance and neoclassical architecture. These architectural styles revolutionised the way Rome, London, Paris and every other major city in Europe from Barcelona to St. Petersburg were built.
Florentines were the driving force behind the Age of Discovery. Florentine bankers financed Henry the Navigator and the Portuguese explorers who pioneered the route around Africa to India and the Far East. It was a map drawn by the Florentine Paulo del Pozzo Toscanelli, a student of Brunelleschi, that Columbus used to sell his "enterprise" to the Spanish monarchs, and which he then used on his first voyage. Mercator's famous "Projection" is a refined version of Toscanelli's map, taking into account the Americas, of which the Florentine was obviously ignorant. The western hemisphere itself is named after a Florentine writer who claimed to be an explorer and mapmaker, Amerigo Vespucci.
Gallileo and other scientists pioneered the study of optics, ballistics, astronomy, anatomy, and so on. Pico della Mirandola, Leonardo Bruni, Machiavelli, and many others laid the groundwork for our understanding of political science.
Opera was invented in Florence.
And that is just a smidgen of what went on in this city, which never had a population above 60,000 from the first attack of the plague in 1348 until long, long after it became unimportant.
And there were the Medici, perhaps the most important family that ever lived. The Medici's changed the world more than any other family. Forget all the art for which they paid. They taught first the other Italians how to conduct state-craft, and then they taught the rest of the Europeans. Just to cite one example: Catherine de' Medici (1519-1589), married Henry II of France (reigned 1547-1559). After he died, Catherine ruled France as regent for her young sons and was instrumental in turning France into Europe’s first nation-state. She brought the Renaissance into France, introducing everything from the chateaux of the Loire to the fork. She also was to 16th and 17th century European royalty what Queen Victoria was to the 19th and 20th centuries – everybody’s grandmamma. Her children included three kings of France, Francis II (ruled 1559-1560), Charles IX (ruled 1560-1574) and Henry III (ruled 1574-1589). Her children-in-law included a fourth king of France, Henry IV (ruled 1589-1610), plus Elizabeth of Hapsburg, Philip II of Spain (of Armada fame), and Mary Queen of Scots.
And that is without mentioning any "artists". From Arnolfo and Cimabue to Giotto, Nanni di Banco, and Uccello; through Lorenzo Ghiberti, and Donatello and Massaccio and the various della Robbias; through Fra Angelico and Botticelli and Piero della Francesca, and on to Michelangelo and Leonardo, the Florentines dominated the visual arts like nobody before or since. And this list does not include many who, in any other place would be considered among the greatest of artists, but in Florence must be considered among the near-great: Benvenuto Cellini, Andrea del Sarto, Benozzo Gozzoli, Domenico Ghirlandaio, Fra Lippo Lippi, Buontalenti, Orcagna, Pollaiuolo, Filippino Lippi, Verrocchio, Bronzino, Desiderio da Settignano, Michelozzo, the Rossellis, the Sangallos, Pontormo, just to name a few. And this list does not include the prolific Ignoto. Nor does it include the near-Florentines, such as Raphael, Andrea Pisano, Giambologna, the wonderfully nicknamed Sodoma and so many more, such as Peter-Paul Rubens, all of whom spent time in Florence and were educated by it.
The Ataf-Sita "Vola in Bus" ("Fly by bus") service costs €6 one way (€10 return), and makes the circuit between the airport and the central train station every half an hour from 5:30AM to 8PM, then once an hour afterwards. Note that 5:30AM bus leaves from the corner of Valfonda and Piazza Adua which is north of the train station instead of from the ATAF-SITA bus station which is on the west side of the train station. You can buy the ticket on the bus.
If you land at Florence and you are really broke (or the airport buses are running late), normal city buses run frequently to the centre from a street 10 minutes walk away. Tickets are €1.20 instead of 6 for the airport bus. The bad news is you will have to sprint across one side of the autostrada! Leave the terminal, walk past the airport bus stop, and cross the northbound carriageway of the autostrada on a pedestrian crosswalk. This brings you to a bus stop, but with almost no services. Continue across the southbound carriageway, where you have to run because there is no crosswalk, and go under the flyover. Take the little residential street directly opposite, and turn right at the other end into Via Pratese. A bus stop, and a newspaper kiosk that sells tickets, are across the street. Any bus from that side of the street will drop you near Santa Maria Novella train station, and they run about every 15 minutes. If the kiosk is closed you can try paying the bus driver, but it costs €2 and he won't give change.
To get back to the airport from central Florence, a cheap easy option is the coach to Prato, which stops right outside the airport. They leave from the end of Via Nazionale near SMN station, round the corner from McDonald's. Look for big blue coaches. Buy your ticket (€1.20) from the office next to the bus stops. You can do this in advance. The journey takes less than 20 minutes, and buses run every 30 minutes (every hour on Sundays). Ask the driver for "aeroporto" or "Peretola" (name of the suburb it is in).
There is a €25 flat rate for taxis from the airport to any place in the historic center of Florence. They will charge €1 extra for each piece of luggage handled by the driver.
Much cheaper flights to destinations throughout Europe can be found at Pisa International Airport (IATA: PSA) in Pisa. Low-cost airlines which fly to Pisa include Thomsonfly, Easyjet, Ryanair, Transavia, Wizzair and HLX. Pisa airport and Florence are connected by rail and by bus. Both leave from and arrive at the main entrance to the airport. The bus station in Florence is immediately across the street from the main railroad station, "Firenze SMN". Train schedules are available at Trenitalia. Bus schedules are available at Terravision. The train costs €7.80 one way, the bus costs €6 one way, and €10 for return. The buses run more often. Some trains do not arrive at the main railroad station, and others require a change at Pisa Centrale.
Modern, fast trains connect Florence with Italy's main cities, and local trains from other parts of Italy and express trains from around Europe arrive in Florence. The main station is Firenze Santa Maria Novella (also referred to as Firenze SMN), on the edge of the historic old town. Other small stations are Firenze Campo Marte (near Florence Stadium) and Firenze Rifredi. If you take an Intercity train to Florence, you may need to change at Rifredi for another train to Firenze S.M.N. The transfer between stations via train is usually already covered by your train ticket (to check for this, your train ticket should not differentiate between the Florence train stations and will simply say "Firenze"). If you happen to have a long wait for the transferring train, it is also possible to take a bus to the city centre, but this is probably not covered by your train ticket. You can walk from Rifredi station to the center of town, but it will take about an hour and you will need a map to navigate.
You might want to consider the overnight train connections to Florence from Paris or most German towns. For example, the train from Florence to Munich leaves at 21:53 and arrives in Munich the next morning at around 08:00. You can sleep comfortably the entire way and it costs about €100. However, recent reports indicate that overnight train service in much of Europe - including the service between Florence and Paris - has deteriorated badly in recent years, and prices have risen. It is now much cheaper, and, of course, much faster, but not as beautiful and nice, to fly EasyJet from Paris - Orly to Pisa and take the approximately 1 hour train or bus ride from the Pisa airport to the main railroad station, Firenze SMN, in central Florence.
The train to Vienna takes about 12 hours and costs €70.
Florence is connected by good highways to the rest of Italy. The easiest way to get in and out of the city from the A-1 Autostrada, which connects Florence to Bologna, Milan and the North, and to Rome and the South, is to use the "Firenze - Impruneta" exit. This is the same route for those leaving for or arriving from Siena on the "Fi-Si" highway. If you are arriving from or leaving for Pisa and the West on the A-11 Autostrada, it may be best to go by way of Firenze-Scandicci and use the A-1 to connect to and from the A-11.
Driving in the historic center - inside the wide "viale" where the old city walls were (and still are, on the southern side of the Arno) - is strictly prohibited, except for residents with permits. Enforcement is by camera, and is ferociously efficient. If you drive in the prohibited areas, you will be tracked down, and you will receive stiff fines in the mail.
Every 40 seconds, a motorist in Florence receives a traffic violation according to figures recently released by city officials. Traffic police issue approximately 90 tickets every minute, over 12,900 tickets a day. The fines on these tickets average out to about €140 per year, per motorist, and they bring about 52 million to city hall each year, making it one of Italy's most heaviest fined cities. Local officials note that the amount of money that enters the municipal budget through traffic fines has tripled in the last 10 years. Centre-right councilors in Florence argue that the city issues much too many traffic violations. ‘A city that counts some 365,000 residents, should not be issuing traffic tickets that amount to €52 million. Milan (1,324,110 residents) in comparison issues €81 million in traffic fines, but it is considerably bigger than Florence.' Of the traffic violations that issued by traffic police in 2008, around a 54% were issued to motorists who entered the limited traffic zones (ZTL) without the required permit; a 29% were given to drivers who parked in no-parking zones; a 2.6% were issued for speeding; and a 0,009% were given for having run a red light.
Most fines are as a result of limited traffic zone (ZTL) violations. There is a very strictly defined route to get in and out of the city for car rental agencies in the Via Fineguerra and the Borg'Ognissanti, just south of the Firenze SMN railroad station. If you rent there, be sure to ask at the office how to get in and out without violating the ZTL.
Parking in garages and parking lots is expensive, costing €30 per night.
There are three kinds of parking places on the street: white, yellow and blue. White is for residents only, yellow ones are reserved, so you can park only on the blue places. The price is €1 per hour and you have to pay from 8AM to 8PM (12 hours). Leave the ticket inside the car in a visible place. Attention: you need coins for the parking - the machine won't accept banknotes or cards.
You can also find 'free' parking at all hours at "Piazzale Michelangelo" on the south side of the town. However, there are time limits for how long you can leave a car, which are rigidly enforced, and if you violate those limits, your car will be towed. It's about a 20 minute walk to the city centre (down the stairs and across the Arno). It has gorgeous views of the city as well.
Bus stops have clear, schematic labelling of the routes and are all named according to the street name or major landmark nearby. They do not always give an indication of bus times, however, so it is sometimes difficult to figure out how long it may take till the next bus arrives. Tickets must be bought in advance from Tobacconists or newspaper sellers, and are usually valid for one hour over the whole network, so that you can just hop on and off at will. They cost €1.20 for 90 minutes, and multiple day tickets are also available. Tickets are also available on the bus, sold by the driver, at an increased price of €2 (therefore, no more excuses in case of ticket control).
Better value is the €5 day ticket also from Tobacconists or news agents, best to add your name to the ticket and show your pass if needed by ticket control. Same as with cheaper. Tickets on first use need to be inserted into the ticket machine on the bus.
The Firenze Card is a 72 hour pass for Florence allowing access to 72 museums. The cost is €72 per person. In some museums you can queue jump the reservations procedure with the pass but it is best to check with individual museums. NOTE: As of 01 November 2015, the Firenze Card no longer covers public transportation. To add public transportation to your Firenze Card you have to buy an extra Firenzecard+ for €5.
Most of the major tourist sights in Florence are within easy walking distance of each other. It is possible to walk from one end of the historic center of Florence to the other - North-South or East-West in a half hour. Walking is not only an easy way to get around, it also offers the chance to 'take in' much more of the city life. Be warned though, that electric motor scooters are small enough to fit where cars cannot. They are silent but quick and in the summer they often travel into the plazas. Some of the streets in central Florence are closed to traffic. Many more are simply too narrow for buses to get through. Therefore, bus and car tours are not recommended. This is a very small, very compact city that really needs to be seen by foot. And, of course, if you need to, you can always buy a new pair of shoes in Florence.
There is a bike rental service organized by the city. Bikes can be hired at several points in the city (and returned to the same place). One of the most convenient for tourists is located at SMN station. There are other locations at many railway stations, but often with restricted opening hours.
While there are hills north and south of the center of town, almost all of the historic center of Florence is easy for bikers, because it is as flat as a hat - flatter than that. But there is a problem: Traffic is terrible with buses, trucks, cars, motorcycles, motorbikes, bicycles, and pedestrians are fighting for almost no space. So pay attention.
Beyond the city bikes, some of the hotels in town provide their guest with free bicycles. Bike shops also often rent bikes and some of them organize guided bike tours in the countryside.
Taxis are available, but it may be best if you have your hotel or the restaurant you are eating at call ahead. Taxis should be called by phone and the nearest one available is sent to you through the company's radio system with its meter ticking away. In Florence, it can be difficult to hail a cab from the street curb. You either call for one or get one at the very few taxi stands. One popular taxi stand is at the central Santa Maria Novella Train Station and in a few major squares. The first taxi in the taxi stand line should be free - ask in case of doubt. Be aware that most taxis do not take credit card for payment. Be sure to have cash and ask in advance in case you only have a credit card with you. Please note that taxis in Florence are relatively expensive. Tipping is not expected, unless the driver helps you carry luggage etc.
Another way of getting around is by using the public buses from ATAF. A day ticket costs €5 and a 3 day ticket costs €12. A four-ride ticket costs €4.70. To get the best price you may have to go to the central bus station. You can buy tickets at tabacchi (shops selling tobacco, which are marked with official looking "T"s out front"), kiosks/newsagents/bars where the symbol "Biglietti ATAF" is shown, as well as at the ATAF ticketing office at the bus station outside Santa Maria Novella train station. Remember to ask for a bus map. Several ticket options are available. One very convenient is the 4-rides ticket and the "Carta Agile". The former needs to be stamped when entering the bus (from the front and rear doors of buses - the central door is supposed to be exit only; though now it is more accepted to enter from the central door). The latter has an embedded electronic chip and needs to be held close ("swiped") to the upper part of the ticket machine inside the bus: the "beep" of the machine will inform you that a ticket has been paid and the display will show you how many more tickets ("swipes") you have left. Within 90 minutes of stamping/swiping you can hop-off & hop-on on any bus of the urban ATAF network. Unfortunately and completely against Italian law, it is not uncommon to see bus drivers talking merrily on their mobile phone while driving. Don't expect riders to complain about it and don't panic - they will still drive with the same non-comfortable style as when they are "only driving". Hold tight to hand rails as Florence traffic is unpredictable and frequent sudden braking is necessary. Bus rides are not by all means "smooth". Buses are "safe" but pick pocketing is quite common. Please keep a close eye to your belongings and avoid showing off cash/jewelry/etc. especially in very crowded buses (especially for lines 17/23/14/22 - generally speaking any crowded bus can give a chance to pick pocket).
There is one tram line operating in the city of Florence. It connects Santa Maria Novella train station in central Florence with the southwestern suburb of Scandicci on a 7.4 kilometer route with a total of 14 stops. The tickets used on ATAF buses can also be used on the tram. Hours of operation: daily 500AM-1230AM. Frequency: 3–11 minutes depending on day and time of travel . Duration: about 23 minutes between Santa Maria Novella and Scandicci. This tram began service on 14 February 2010 and is the first streetcar line in the city of Florence since 1958.
Driving inside the historic center of Florence is virtually impossible.
Only residents with permits are allowed to drive there. Enforcement of the "Limited Traffic Zone" or "ZTL" is by camera. Violators will be tracked down and fined, but the fine may not arrive for a year or more after the infraction. The fines start at about €90. Once you enter the forbidden zone, it is virtually impossible to pass only one camera, and each time you do, it is a separate fine.
In addition, Florence has some of the tiniest streets in Europe, an amazingly fiendish one-way system that confuses even the locals, and some streets that just come to an abrupt end, with little or no warning.
Parking on the street in the historic center is out of the question. It may only be done by residents with a permit, and all other cars are towed away instantly - if not sooner - to some godforsaken suburb from which it will cost you hundreds of euros to get yours returned.
That said, you may be able to arrange a very temporary - about 30-minute - exemption through your hotel, which will need your license number and other information to make arrangements with the authorities. You will then have to get the car from the hotel out of the ZTL before the exemption expires.
A car can be useful to reach some destinations just outside the city centre, like Fiesole or Settignano (these sights are also reachable by bus service), or for day trips to wonderful places such as Siena, Volterra, Arezzo, etc. It is possible, if a bit tricky to rent a car in Florence and get out of town and back to the car rental agency without violating the ZTL. Those tempted to do so, should make sure to get precise directions from the rental agency.
- Barocchi, Piazza Madonna degli Aldobrandini, ☎ +39 0552670619, fax: +39 0552729793, e-mail: email@example.com.
Florence is filled with many churches stuffed with some of the finest art in the world: Santa Maria del Fiore, San Miniato al Monte, San Lorenzo, Santa Maria Novella, Santa Trinita, the Brancacci Chapel at Santa Maria del Carmine, Santa Croce, Santo Spirito, SS Annunziata, Ognissanti, and more.
Then there are the art galleries. The Uffizi and the Pitti Palace are two of the most famous picture galleries in the world. But the heart and soul of Florence are in the two superb collections of sculpture, the Bargello and the Museum of the Works of the Duomo. They are filled with the brilliant, revolutionary creations of Donatello, Verrochio, Desiderio da Settignano, Michelangelo, and so many other masterpieces that create a body of work unique in the world. And, of course, there is the Accademia, with Michelangelo's David, perhaps the most well-known work of art anywhere, plus the superb, unfinished prisoners and slaves Michelangelo worked on for the tomb of Pope Julius II.
To get a great overview of the city, you have plenty of choices: climb the dome of the Cathedral or Giotto's Bell Tower which is much easier or head for Piazzale Michelangelo a large parking lot on the hillside just south of the center of town, or climb a bit further to the church of San Miniato al Monte, a sublime 11th century masterpiece, with superb Renaissance sculptures. At vespers, the monks add to the beauty with chants. Unsurprisingly the historic centre of Florence has been inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage list.
Piazza del Duomo
Santa Maria del Fiore topped by Brunelleschi's dome is the third largest Christian church and dominates the skyline. The Florentines decided to start building it in the 1200s. At the outset they were unsure how they were going to do it. It was "technology forcing", not unlike like the American Kennedy Administration's decision to put a man on the moon. The dome was the largest ever built at the time, and the first major dome built in Europe since the two great domes of Roman times: the Pantheon in Rome and the Hagia Sophia in Constantinople. In front of it is the medieval Baptistery, where every Florentine was baptized until modern times. The two buildings incorporate the transition from the Middle Ages to the Renaissance in their decoration. In recent years, most of the important works of art from those two buildings and from the wonderful Bell Tower, designed by Giotto, have been removed and replaced by copies. The originals are now housed in the spectacular Museum of the Works of the Duomo, just to the east of the Cathedral. Buy a single ticket for €15 (concessions €3) to enter the following monuments (one entry per monument, valid for 24 hours after first use):
- Santa Maria del Fiore. Also known as the Duomo di Firenze is the city's beautiful Gothic cathedral, the symbol of the city. Brunelleschi's huge dome was an engineering feat of the Renaissance. A statue of Brunelleschi is sited in the piazza, with his figure looking upwards towards his dome. It is possible to climb the Dome (entrance on the side of the church), which has 464 steps. Usually has a long lineup.
- Giotto's Tower (Campanile di Giotto). Adjacent to the Duomo, you can climb the tower for a magnificent 360-degree view of the Duomo, Florence, and the surrounding area, and requires some tenacity to climb 414 steps.
- Baptistery. Famous for its bronze doors by Andrea Pisano (14th century) and Lorenzo Ghiberti (15th century) and a beautiful interior the vault of which is decorated with 13th century mosaics (the only medieval set of mosaics in the city).
- Museo dell'Opera del Duomo (Museum of the Works of the Duomo), Piazza del Duomo 9 (Directly behind the dome end of the cathedral), ☎ +39 055 230 2885 (Reservations). The Cathedral Museum, with artworks formerly in the Duomo and surrounding religious buildings, including sculptures by Donatello, another version of the Pietà (different from that one of Saint Peter's Basilica, in Vatican, Rome) by Michelangelo, and the losing entries in the famous contest held in 1401 to design the doors of the Baptistery. Models and drawings of the Cathedral. Worthy. Currently under going reconstruction and will re-open October 29, 2015.
The Uffizi is the most famous, but Florence also has other amazing museums a short walk away with world class artistic treasures. In all, Florence has something over 80 museums. Among those at the top of most lists are the City hall, the Palazzo della Signoria (aka Palazzo Vecchio), a wonderful building with magnificent rooms and some great art; the Archeological Museum, the Museum of the History of Science, the Palazzo Davanzatti, the Stibbert Museum, St. Marks, the Medici Chapels, the Museum of the Works of Santa Croce, the Museum of the Cloister of Santa Maria Novella, the Zoological Museum ("La Specola"), the Bardini, and the Museo Horne. There is also a wonderful collection of works by the modern sculptor, Marino Marini, in a museum named after him. If you are interested in photography, you should not miss the superb collection of works by the early photographers, the Alinari brothers. The magnificent Strozzi Palace is the site of many special exhibits. Note that all state museums, meaning all the main museums, have reduced prices (50% off) for EU citizens aged 18–25 and entry is free of charge for EU citizens aged over 65. It is best to book ahead at the ticket counters as it can be busy.
- Galleria degli Uffizi, Piazzale degli Uffizi, ☎ +39 055 294883. Tue-Sun 08:15-18:50, Mon closed. Ticket office closes 45min earlier. One of the world's most famous fine art museums with collections of Renaissance paintings and sculptures from classical antiquity. Included is The Birth of Venus by Sandro Boticelli. There are often long lines and several hours' wait is common, starting even before the doors open. You can call +39 055 294883 to make a reservation in advance and walk right in, which is strongly recommended if you can spare the extra €4. The phone operator will give you an extension number which you quote at Gate 3 to pay (cash only) and get the tickets. Online booking is available but is much less convenient because it costs more, has a 24 hour waiting period, your specified time may change and you need to print an email. The restaurant/caffè has a large balcony overlooking the main piazza with good views of the Palazzo Vecchio. It is a great place to take a break for art lovers making a non-rushed visit to this fantastic collection. This cafe is rather expensive however. Street performers are often seen outside the Uffizi. Admission €8 adults, €4 concessions. Phone booking €4 extra. Online booking €4 extra.
- Bargello (Museo Nazionale del Bargello), Via de Proconsolo 4, ☎ +39 055 294883. 8:15AM-1:30PM Tu-Su and the 1st, 3rd & 5th M of each month. Closed the 2nd & 4th M of each month as well as May 1st. This museum houses one of the best examples of Renaissance and Mannerist sculpture. The works of many great Renaissance sculptors are on display here, including Michelangelo, Donatello, Ammannati, Bandinelli, Andrea and Jacopo Sansovino, Desiderio da Settignano, Giambologna, and Antonio Rossellino. The museum is near Piazza della Signoria and can be seen in a few hours. Admission is €7.
- Accademia Gallery (Galleria dell'Accademia), Via Ricasoli 58-60. Tu-Su 8:15AM-6:50PM. Highlights are Michelangelo's David and the unfinished Slaves. The David was recently cleaned in a controversial project. No photography is allowed inside. Wait times can be under one hour in the off-season. It is possible to reserve at the academia in advance and save yourself the long line. If you're only interested in see David and Rape of the Sabines and are short on cash you can see replicas in Palazzo Vecchio where you can also take pictures. Note that while restoring or repairing art, the gallery often showcases the replicas (you can tell because the toenail is intact for David, for example). €11 (advance booking: €15).
- Pitti Palace (Palazzo Pitti). On the quieter south bank of the Arno. The former Medici family palace contains galleries of their art and treasures. The Boboli gardens behind the palazzo offer wonderful walks and excellent views of the city and the countryside south of the city. 6.5€.
- Museo Galileo, Piazza dei Giudici 1, ☎ +39 055 265 311. 9:30AM-6PM, Tu closes at 1PM. This museum shows the evolution of the instruments used in various scientific fields such as mathematics, physics, biology, chemistry, astronomy. The room of Galileo Galilei shows some of his original instruments as well as models from his drawings. The room of Spheres and Globes houses an excellent cartographic collection. In a rather macabre twist the museum also has the middle finger of Galileo's right hand on display. €9.
For those making longer stays in Florence, the city also has an interesting archaeological museum (the Etruscan art collection is particularly good), a Contemporary Art gallery, seated in Palazzo Strozzi, and other collections.
Old town centre
- Palazzo Vecchio. Old city palace/city hall, adorned with fine art. The replica of Michelangelo's "David" is placed outside the main door in the original location of the statue, which is a symbol of the Comune of Florence. The site displays an important collection of Renaissance sculptures and paintings, including the Putto, by Verrochio, and the series of murals by Giorgio Vasari at the Salone dei Cinquecento (Hall of the Five Houndreds) - the hall which used to display the now lost Renaissance masterpiece, that is, the so-called Battaglia di Anghiari, by Leonardo da Vinci. "Museum" or "Tower and Battlements": €10 adults, €8 concessions. "Museum" and "Tower and Battlements": €14 adults, €12 concessions.
- Ponte Vecchio. The oldest and most famous bridge over the Arno; the only Florentine bridge to survive WW2. The Ponte Vecchio (literally "old bridge") is lined with shops, traditionally mostly jewellers since the days of the Medici. Vasari's elevated walkway crosses the Arno over the Ponte Vecchio, connecting the Uffizi to the old Medici palace.
- Santa Croce. Contains the monumental tombs of Galileo, Michelangelo, Machiavelli, Dante, and many other notables in addition to artistic decorations. There is also great artwork in the church. And when you're done seeing that, a separate charge will gain you admission to the Museo dell'Opera di Santa Croce, where you can see a flood-damaged but still beautiful Crucifix by Cimabue (Giotto's teacher), which has become both the symbol of the flooding of Firenze in 1966 and of its recovery from that disaster. The Pazzi Chapel, a perfectly symmetrical example of sublime neo-Classic Renaissance architecture is also worth visiting. 6€.
- Santa Maria Novella (near the train station). A beautiful church with great artwork, including a recently restored Trinity by Masaccio. Also, the Chiostro Verde, to your left when facing the front entrance of the church, contains frescoes by Paolo Uccello which are quite unusual in style and well worth seeing, if the separate entrance is open. Off of the church's cloister is the wonderful Spanish Chapel which is covered in early Renaissance frescoes. €5 adults, €3.50 concessions.
- Orsanmichele. A beautiful old church from the 14th century, which once functioned as a grain market.
- San Lorenzo. The façade of this church was never completed, giving it a striking, rustic appearance. Inside the church is pure Renaissance neo-classical splendor. If you go around the back of the church, there is a separate entrance to the Medici chapels. Be sure to check out the stunning burial chapel of the princes and the sacristy down the corridor. The small sacristy is blessed with the presence of nine Michelangelo sculptures.
- San Marco Convent. Houses frescoes by Fra Angelico and his workshop. Fra Angelico painted a series of frescoes for the cells in which the Dominican monks lived.
- Great Synagogue and Jewish Museum of Florence (Sinagoga e Museo Ebraico Firenze), via Farini, 6, ☎ +39 055 234 6654. June-Sept, Sun-Thurs: 10:00 - 18:30, Fri: 10:00 - 17:00; Oct-May, Sun-Thurs: 10:00 - 17:30; Fri: 10:00-15:00. Closed except for religious services on Saturdays and Jewish holidays. Lovely Moorish-style synagogue built in 1882 and a museum with many artefacts and documentation of Florentine Jewish life going back many centuries; visits are guided. €6.50 total for the synagogue and museum.
South bank of the Arno
- Boboli Gardens. Elaborately landscaped and with many interesting sculptures, behind the Pitti Palace. Wonderful city views. Don't miss the Bardini gardens. Entrance to that is included in the combination ticket price for the Boboli, and it's a short walk from the Boboli Gardens. There are great views of the Duomo from the Bardini gardens. A single adult ticket to the gardens costs €7.
- Piazzale Michelangelo (Michelangelo Square). Plaza on a hilltop with a great view of the city (go there by bus) or climb the stairs and paths from the Lungarno della Zecca.
- Santa Maria del Carmine. Famous frescoes (Masaccio’s Adam and Eve Banished From the Garden and others by Lippi and Masolino) in the Brancacci Chapel.
- San Miniato al Monte (uphill from Piazzale Michelangelo). The Sacristy contains frescoes by Spinello Aretino. In the cemetery near this church there are graves of famous people of Florence, including Carlo Lorenzi (Collodi) - author of the famous Pinocchio. Also, turn around when you reach the top of the stairs before entering the church, to see perhaps an even greater view of the city than from nearby Piazzale Michelangelo.
- Santa Felicita (on the Oltrarno, or south side of the Ponte Vecchio). Contains frescoes of the Annunciation and a painting of the Deposition of Christ by the brilliant and weird mannerist painter, Pontormo. They are to be found in the Barbadori Chapel, which is to your immediate right when entering the church.
Great places to walk include along the Arno and across any of its bridges; through narrow, medieval back streets in the Santa Croce area; and in the Oltr'Arno - on the south side of the river, in many ways like Rome's Trastevere or Paris's Left Bank - but far, far smaller.
- Climb the Duomo or Campanile. Traverse the winding staircases inside the duomo or the nearby bell tower to see some of the best views of Florence. Not only can you see the Tuscan countryside in the distance and the impressive palaces and churches of Florence in the fore, but it also shows you just how large the Duomo is.
- Stroll the Boboli Gardens. These extensive gardens behind the Pitti palace provide excellent views of the city of Florence and numerous sculptures in a relaxed environment. Stop in the hilltop café, grab a drink and a seat outside and enjoy the view.
- Street Performers by the Uffizi, in front of the Palazzo Vecchio. In the evenings street performers often put on a show here. Performances can range from violin duets to people dressed as sculptures. A nice place to stop while you eat your after-dinner gelato.
- Enjoy the view from the Piazzale Michelangelo. It's a big square on a hill, but somewhat distant from the traditional tourist sites. It's easy to reach it even on foot using the stairs called "Rampe di San Niccolò". They are on the side of the Arno river just in front of the national library. Do this during the summer and during the night to admire Florence's lights.
Outside the city
- Impruneta's spa, Via Cassia 217, Terme di Firenze (From the city of Florence, take the Autostradale Firenze - Siena and the SR2. The spa is on a lefthand turnoff from the R2, approximately 13 km south of the city of Florence.). The thermal waters of Impruneta spring from two sources and are used to treat respiratory diseases, liver, gastrointestinal, and skin allergies.
- Florence Phography Workshop & Tour, ☎ +39 348 840 0459, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. 12PM-6PM (1.30PM-7.30PM in July and August). Discover Florence with your camera and with a professional photography teacher (a Vogue-featured American photographer) and a official Florence guide at your side.
- ABC School, Via dei Rustici 7, ☎ +39 055 212001, fax: +39 055 212001, e-mail: email@example.com. 9AM-5PM. Italian language school offering language and cultural courses since 1982.
- Centro Machiavelli, Piazza Santo Spirito 4, ☎ +39 0552396966, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Italian language and cultural school for foreigners. The structure and the contents of the programmes for the levels are based on the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages. The school also organises a programme of cultural activities and excursions to complement the language classes and enable the students to come into contact with the Italian culture and practice Italian in the field.
- Istituto Galilei, Via Alfani 68, ☎ +39 055 29 46 80, fax: +39 055 28 34 81, e-mail: email@example.com. Italian language school specializing in one-to-one, personalized and small group (max 4 people) full immersion courses.
- Michelangelo Institute, Via Ghibellina 88, ☎ +39 055 240975, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Italian study programmes for foreign students. Cooking workshop, art history classes, plastic arts and visual arts programs are also taught in this academy.
- Cooking Class. Florence and Tuscany are becoming synonymous with "cooking class". Tuscan cuisine is appreciated worldwide and a cooking class experience is now more and more part of the attraction of Tuscany, as a way of carrying back home memories and improved cooking skills. There are many in the area, either in historical villas in the countryside or in central Florence, from Florentine use of tripe and giblets to the use of organic ingredients from the local producers, and classes range widely in size. During high season, make sure to book in advance.
There are a few places to buy things, from the high-end jewelry stores lining the Ponte Vecchio to some of the most famous shops in the world; Gucci, Pucci, Ferragamo, Valentino, Prada, Armani, Ermenegildo Zegna, Buccellati, Frette, as well as many more wonderful shops that aren't yet world famous. Souvenirs related to art and Florence's sights can be found everywhere. Books, leather goods, art handcrafted journals, frames, pencils etc. in that gorgeous Florentine paper with swirls of color and gold are great gifts.
It is increasingly difficult to find bargains, but keen-eyed shoppers can still find good deals on smaller, side streets running off of those above and elsewhere in the center of town. Better stores in/near the city center offer superb leathers at sometimes decent prices...perhaps after some bickering. Goldsmiths on the Ponte Vecchio display beautiful and quality work, but can be very expensive. Shops that are not located in the very centre of the city are significantly cheaper. There are also superb shopping streets, such as the Via Tornabuoni, the Via del Parione, and the Via Maggio. The San Lorenzo market is now largely for tourists. There are also a couple of collections of "outlets" in the suburbs.
Some of the most uniquely Florentine shops and sights can be found in the Oltrarno, which is Florence's "Left Bank" and home to countless generations of artisans. This section of town can be found by crossing "Ponte Vecchio" (the old bridge) or Ponte Trinità from the center. This "undiscovered" Florence is a must-see.
- Enoteca Mondovino, Via S. Agostino 27-29/R, ☎ +39 055 215214. Decent wine and Liquor store with interesting collection of potable bitters in the back (Italian and German).
- Beaded Lily Beads & Designer Jewelry, Via Toscanella 33r (In the Oltrarno - Steps from Piazza Della Passera *Walking directions posted on website), ☎ +39 055 239 9182. An inspiring array of unique beading supplies, handmade designer jewelry, Italian Tubular Wire Mesh Ribbon, Italian chains, yarns and more. Now offering glass beadmaking and jewellery design courses.
- Officina Profumo-Farmaceutica di Santa Maria Novella, Via della Scala 16 N. An old pharmacy, which sells high-qualitiy beauty products like soaps, shaving cream, eau de Cologne.
- Pitti Vintage - Italian & European Vintage Clothing & Accessories, Borgo degli Albizi 72r, ☎ +39 055 230 2676, e-mail: shopkeeper@PittiVintage.com. Fendi, Ferragamo, Gucci, Lancetti, Valentino. Specializes in Italian and European designer and one-of-a-kind vintage pieces.
- Cose Del 900 - Italian Glass Connection, Borgo San Jacopo 45R (Just two minutes from Ponte Vecchio.), ☎ +39 055 283 491, e-mail: Shopkeeper@ItalianGlassConnection.com. Monday - Saturday 10:30AM-7:30PM. Since 1981 - Specializing in sized-to-order, affordable beaded jewelry featuring handmade Murano glass beads.
- Zei Cinofilia, Via P. Colletta n.30/32r, ☎ +39 055 2477909. 9AM-7PM. Since 1962 the pet shop has been selling stylish Italian accessories for cats and dogs.
- Ortigia SRL, Borgo San Jacopo 12R (next to the Ponte Vecchio), ☎ +39 055 282129. Luxurious soaps, scents, creams, candles and lotions inspired by the aesthetics, colours, and scents of Sicily.
- Creature Diverse (Bottega d'Arte), Borgo San Jacopo 76/r (just across river from central Florence), ☎ +39 055 2382206. noon-7:30PM. Sarah, the designer/owner of this jewellery and curio shop, doubles as a designer for some of the best known luxury brands (Gucci, Louis Vuitton, etc). Buy her stylish, hip originals here. Great souvenirs for women (or Jewellery wearing men). €20-€40 and up.
- Ottica Fotografia, Via dei Pecori, 19r, ☎ +39 055 287966. Monday - Saturday 9AM - 6PM. Claims to be the oldest shop in Florence, and this can easily be believed. The shop has survived just infront of the Cathedral and is well worth a visit - especially if you need glasses made or repaired, good quality inexpensive sunglasses, or old school camera film. (Or anything else from an odd assortment of interesting items found in the window!) Owner Mario speaks fluent Italian, French and English.
- Albrici, Via dei Serragli 20R, ☎ +39 055211095, e-mail: email@example.com. Monday 3pm-7pm Tuesday - Saturday 9am-1pm 3pm-7pm. Antiques and home decor store located in the traditional neighborhood of the artisans' workshops of Florence, the Oltrarno. It's been recognised by the city of Florence as a "Historical Florentine Store" due to its 50 years-long history.
- Recollection by Albrici (Albrici), Via dei Serragli 22R, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Monday 3pm-7pm / Tuesday - Saturday 9am-1pm 3pm-7pm.. Inside the historic store Albrici, Recollection is a place for selected vintage clothing and accessories that tell the history of fashion from the 1920's to the 1990's.
Beware: If the police catch you while buying a knock-off version of something with a brand from an (illegal) street vendor, you can be fined up to €10,000. You'll see plenty of people on the street selling imitation Gucci sunglasses, Rolex watches, and Prada purses dirt cheap. It's okay if the item doesn't have a real brand on it, but buying a knock-off is illegal.
Remember that restaurants have separate prices for food to go or eaten standing up versus sit down service; don't try to sit at a table after paying for food or coffee from the restaurant's to go booth. Also ask always beforehand for the price if you want to sit at a table. Otherwise you might be uncomfortably surprised. Cappuccino al banco i.e. standing up might cost €1-3; but at a table €4.
Florence's food can be as much of a treat to the palate as the art is a treat to the eye. There is good food for any price range, from fine restaurants to take out food from window stands. The best price/quality ratio you will find outside the historical center where normal Italians go to eat. The worst ratio is probably in the neighbourhood of Mercato di San Lorenzo where there are a lot of tourist restaurants, while many of the best restaurants in the city are found in the Santa Croce district. In some, requests for pizza may be met with a rebuff. For local pizza look for small shops near the Duomo.
The best lunch places don't always turn out to be the best dinner places. Dinner in Florence really starts sometime between 7PM and 9PM. If a place looks like they're preparing to close before 8PM, it might not be the best option for dinner. Reheated pasta is not very tasty.
Typical Tuscan courses include Bistecca alla fiorentina which is huge t-bone steak weighing from 500g to 1,500g. It has always price given per 100g, e.g. €3.5 etto (an etto is a "hectogram" or 100 grams-ettogrammo). Crostini toscani are crostini with tuscan liver pâté.
There is also a uniquely Florentine fast food with a 1,000-year history - lampredotto, a kind of tripe (cow stomach, or calf for preference, but a different part than the more familiar white "honeycomb" kind, dark brown in color; the name comes from its wrinkled appearance, which apparently reminds locals of a lamprey fish). The trippaio set their carts in the public squares in the center, dishing out the delicacy straight from the cauldron in which it is being boiled with herbs and tomatoes, chopping it and slapping the portions between halves of a Tuscan roll; the top is dipped in the broth. A mild green parsley- or basil-based sauce or a hot red one goes with it.
There are many gelato (Italian ice cream) stands; some connoisseurs consider the better Florentine gelato the finest in the world. Often gelato is made in the bar where you buy it. Because of this there are many exotic flavors of ice cream like watermelon, spumante or garlic. It's hard to find a gelato place open very late, so after dinner might not be an option. Near the Duomo though, there are a few places open after 10PM.
Tuscany is also the wellspring of cantuccini, also called biscotti di Prato. (Please note that in Italian, the singular of biscotti is un biscotto). It's traditional to enjoy them after a meal by dipping them in Vin Santo ("Holy Wine"), a concentrated wine made from late-harvested grapes, but you can also buy bags of them in stores throughout the city and eat them however you like.
There are numerous caffè and pasticcerie where you can find excellent sandwiches. Pizza sold by weight is an equally excellent solution for budget dining (vegetarian and vegan options are almost always available), as is any caffè displaying a "Primi" card in its window where you'll find pastas and other dishes at low reasonable prices. The delis (rosticcerie) are very affordable (and the food is often quite good), and some also have dining tables if you don't want to take away.
You can buy the makings for a picnic or snack at the Mercato Centrale. This large market has everything you might need, often at more affordable prices than supermarkets. The stalls will also sometimes vacuum seal whatever you buy so you can take it home with you.
A general rule: the closer you are to the historic old town, the higher the price.
- L'Azdora, Piazza del Mercato Centrale, 14R. Very tasty and cheap food.
- Il Vegetariano, ☎ +39 055 475030. Via delle Ruote, 30 r. A welcoming budget restaurant that serves delicious and healthy food to a nice mix of locals and tourists. One can sit in the more formal front room, the eclectic middle room, or the peaceful outdoor garden in the back. Daily changing menu with vegan and gluten-free items clearly marked, many luscious desserts on display, salads, soups, hearty brown bread, and a good selection of coffee, tea, wine, beer, and liqueur.
- I fratellini, Via dei Cimatori, 38R, ☎ +39 055 239 6096. Nothing but the essentials: panini (€2.50) and wine (€1.60+) from a tiny hole in the wall. Patrons eat on the sidewalk while resting their glass of wine on small shelves nested along the street wall.
- Oil Shoppe. Via S. Egidio 22r. This quaint deli has affordable (€4) hot and cold sandwiches made with a variety of meats (try the meatball sandwich), sauces and fresh vegetables. You can get a meal deal with chips and small drink for €6.50. It is open from 10.30AM to whenever the bread (white, wheat and sub rolls) runs out, which is usually between 6 and 7 in the evening. During the peak period of February to June, it can get very crowded in the day with students, but their love for the sandwiches there is apparent in their loyalty. A good mid-day meal to take with you on the go as you explore Florence, Via S. Egidio is not too far off the beaten track. The Oil Shoppe also sells its own extra virgin olive oil, which they generously use in their sandwiches.
- Trattoria Mario, ☎ +39 055 218550. Via Rosina 2/R (near Piazza Mercato Centrale); (no bookings) The restaurant opens for lunch and they sit you with other people walking into the restaurant. There is a menu on the wall and the food is great and if you can, save room for a secondi (meat plate).
- Trattoria Le Mossacce, Via Del Proconsolo, 55R, ☎ +39 055 294361. Lunch until 2PM, Dinner starting at 7PM. A local eatery that has been well-reviewed by multiple publications. Local produce and meats are prepared simply using traditional recipes and time-honoured tradition. Some pastas are made fresh daily, so ask for the daily special. If you want to experience Bistecca alla Fiorentina (Florentine-style steak), they do it amazingly without breaking your wallet. They sell and cut the steak from a larger rib slab in increments of 100g (with a minimum of 500g per serving). Primi: 3-6, Secondi €6-25.
- Leonardo, Via de' Pecori 11, ☎ +39 055 284446. 11:45AM-2:45PM for lunch, 6:45PM-9:45PM for dinner. Closed on Saturday. A cozy self-service restaurant at the corner of Via de' Pecori and Via de' Vecchietti. About 2 min walk from Duomo. Although there is a menu at the entrance, it is better to go straight to the restaurant, see what they have on their counters and pick what you like. You can also order Bistecca alla Fiorentina. Primi €3.5-4. Secondi €4.5-5.5. About €10 per person for a full-course dinner.
- Za-Za, Piazza del Mercato Centrale 26R. A very nicely decorated restaurant with many vegetarian choices. You can choose to sit inside or outside in the piazza. The menu is huge, lots of choices, and the prices are fair. Service is outstanding, they really cater to your needs. Make sure to try the chianti house wine. Highly recommended. Beware: between the two doorways for Za Za, there is another, far more touristy trattoria. At first glance, it looks like part of the same place. Don't be fooled! €10-12 for a dish.
- Il Giardino di Barbano, Piazza Indipendenza 3-4r, ☎ +39 055 486752. This restaurant just on the edge of the center offers a great way to escape the tourist restaurants and enjoy a good pizza between the locals. This restaurant offers great wood oven pizza's (try the O' Sole Mio) that you can enjoy in the garden (in summertime) or take-away and friendly staff (that recognize you on your second visit). €6-10 euro per pizza.
- al Tranvai, ☎ +39 055 225197. Piazza T.Tasso, 14 r. An excellent restaurant for authentic Tuscan fare away from the tourist centre. This place gets very busy around 8PM with the locals so be there a bit before. Very traditional Tuscan food at decent prices. 1st courses at €7 and 2nds at about €10 to €16. Vino at €4/0.5L. The rabbit, asparagus souffle and fiori fritti are excellent and the service very welcoming and warm.
- "Il Latini" Restaurant, ☎ +39 055 210916. Via dei Palchetti, 6r. You actually are seated at a table with other people and that is the fun of the restaurant. The owner visits each table and everyone is in a great mood. It is the combination of all that is mentioned above plus the personalities of the waiters make it a fun place to eat, visit and enjoy the whole Florentine experience. At 7:30PM when it opens, you will see a crowd outside the restaurant trying to be first in line. The restaurant is bigger than it looks. Even if you do wait, they bring you wine and cheese to those in line. The line is worth it. You might try and ask the owner if you could see the cellar because that is where there is a small private dining area for wine lovers (group party) and the wine is stored there.
- Palle d'Oro, Via S. Antonino, 43/45R (From Santa Maria Novella train station walk a bit south (about 200m) then you will get to Piazza Dell'Unita Italiana. Via S. Antonino looks almost like an alley, from the plaza it will be on your left side), ☎ +39 055 88383. Three generations of the same family have managed the restaurant, started as a wine seller (they have also been producing wine). They specialize in Tuscany traditional food. Quality of food is excellent, since they are not only good cooks, but also use very good quality ingredients. They had a fixed price meal for €13 choice of 1st course, 2nd course, side and mineral water. Decent house wine for €2/0.25L. Closed for dinner (but still open for lunch) Tuesday - Thursday as of June 2012.
- Trattoria Cammillo, Borgo San Jacopo 57/R (near the fountain at the 5 way dangerous intersection south of the river), ☎ +39 055 212427. closed Tuesdays and Wednesdays. Fairly good Tuscan cuisine, with a number of options for vegetarians and vegans. Make reservations or arrive at 7PM.
- Sancho Panza, Via De'Vanni, 2/4 R (next to Piazza Gaddi), ☎ +39 055 702100. open for diner only, closed Wednesdays. Excellent Italian cuisine (pizza, meat, fresh pasta...).
- Restaurant Terrazza Brunelleschi, ☎ +39 055 235 80, fax: +39 055 235 888 95. Piazza Unità Italiana, 6. From the Panoramic "Terrazza Brunelleschi" Restaurant you can catch all of Florence in a glimpse: the dome of Santa Maria del Fiore designed by Brunelleschi and Giotto's famous campanile, the roofs of the age-old buildings of the historical center and the green hills that surround the city on the horizon.
- Enoteca Pinchiorri, ☎ +39 055 242777. Via Ghibellina, 87. Situated in the center, near Santa Croce, perhaps the most expensive and exclusive winery and restaurant in Florence. You will choose from a selection of the best Italian wines. Expect to spend more than €100 each, but according to your wine taste, it can easily reach much higher prices. You will be presented with separate bills for the food and for the wine.
- Il Cibreo, ☎ +39 055 234 11 00, fax: +39 055 244 966. Via Dei Macci, 118/R. In the center near Santa Croce. Vast and great choice of Tuscan food, with highly selected ingredients. €50-100 each.
- Trattoria da Tito, ☎ +39 055 472 475. Via S.Gallo 112/r. Although a bit of a walk from the main attractions, this restaurant speaks for itself with madatory reservations. Great Italian food with the great Italian atmosphere. Dinner often includes impromptu free drinks and a lively wait staff. €50-100 each.
- Gelateria dei Neri, Via dei Neri 20r. Ice cream in many flavors, some experimental, all excellent.
- Festival Del Gelato, Via Del Corso 75. 50 flavors and has an upbeat atmosphere
- Perché No Via dei Tavolini 19. Freshly made daily from quality ingredients. The pear will be made with real pears and will taste of pears. Typically fruit flavors will be made with seasonally available fruits. Chocolate flavor will taste of cocoa rather than chocolate milk-powder. If you are a chocolate fan, this is the place to go. Specialties are "sorbetto" (ice cream made with water rather than milk, both with fruit and standard flavors, and "mousse" ice creams. Ask for the "special" taste of the day.
- Vivoli, ☎ +39 055 292 334. Via Isole delle Stinche, 7/R. Close to Piazza Santa Croce. Vivoli has a good gelato fruit selection, so definitely try the fragola, or strawberry. Make sure that you ask for the cream on top as well, because it adds another element to an already great dessert.
Tap water is safe but those who prefer bottled water will find it plentiful.
Make sure to sample the excellent wines of the region.
Chianti is the local wine that can be ordered cheaply. Many eateries will offer carafes of various sizes of "house chianti", usually for under €4.
- La Cite. A very nice and cozy cafe/bookstore. Good prices, nice atmosphere, good books. Borgo San Frediano 20r.
- Enoteca Le volpi e l'Uva, ☎ +39 055 2398132. The must of the tasting wines and savory titbits. Piazza dei Rossi, 1.
- Uffizi Museum The bar at this museum offers an amazing view overlooking la Piazza della Signoria, but it's only accessible through the museum, so you'll have to buy a ticket.
- Irish Pub (The Fiddlers Elbow) Piazza Santa Maria Novella. This pub has plenty of seating, in addition to live music and great staff.
- Bebop-great coverbands everynight and a €4 pint. Can be found north of the Duomo on the right on Via Dei Servi, before you reach Piazza d Annunziata.
- Ambrosia - Found in Piazza de Ambrosia. This is primarily a wine bar, and you can sample some great wines at a low cost provided you come with friends and share the price of whole bottles.
- Rivoire Piazza della Signoria. Founded in 1872 this terrace facing the Palazzo Vecchio is a Florentine institution.
- Paszkowski or Gilli. Situated on the Piazza Republica, next to the hotel Savoy. Note that the terraces on the other side of the piazza are equally pricey.
- Été, Via Faenza 63. A lovely little café with warm service and good local beer and wine. € 3 draft beer.
- Cavalli Club, Piazza del Carmine, 8. Roberto Cavalli, Italian Fashion Designer has one his beautiful clubs located in Florence. The inside has a stage with a projector of Roberto Cavalli's fashion shows running non-stop. The upstairs can be a private lounge for parties or VIP section on certain nights. This club was the most popular on Wednesday nights, but it’s open on the weekends as well. It’s black and leopard interior fits the natural and animalistic designs Roberto Cavalli creates. Roberto and his two sons are frequently at the club so look out! All ages are appropriate and the dress attire here is rather upscale. This is not just a seasonal club so all year visitors are encouraged to go. Drinks run about €10 each.
- Bamboo Lounge Club, Via Giuseppe Verdi, 57/R, ☎ +393394298764, e-mail: email@example.com. 11pm-4am. Bamboo Lounge Club is a great place for young adults and students to party. The music is great from European to American techno and many other worldwide DJs. Bamboo Lounge Club offers VIP tables and has two midsized bars. It is very clean and safe to be in. It is located on Via Giuseppe Verdi not far from the Duomo. Dress is a little more than casual, but not too upscale. The loud music, dancing, and exciting atmosphere gives people a chance to let loose and have fun. The club features mostly house, techno and hip hop music. Women free entrance until 1am Men 10€.
- Tenax, Via Pratese, 46. If you love house and electronic music this is the best club to go to. It’s a two story club, located on the outskirts of Florence, features DJ’s from all around Europe, America, and Australia. This club also holds many concerts during the winter and summer. Many people come from all over to enjoy this clubs atmosphere. The dance floor is extremely large and is always very crowded. Be smart where you keep your bag and wallet because it’s very easy to get pick pocketed in large clubs like this. This club usually has a cover of €20 and the drinks are rather expensive, but it is a great place to experience at least once. It is very different than most of the clubs in Florence because of the multi-story building. To venture here would be best by taxi or bus. Since it is located in the outskirts of Florence walking could be difficult and not advised. There are many people who can help in directions in the Santa Maria Novella Station.
As elsewhere the price of hotels in Florence has been climbing quickly in the last few years. The golden rule here is if you want something cheap you'll have to stay outside of the historic center. The area around the train station is cheaper, but not as safe, especially for women travelers at night. If you are looking at big chain hotels you should be aware that they are usually quite a distance from the centre, the Novotel for instance is almost at the airport.
Certain hotels, particularly those oriented toward business travellers offer special reduced rates during the weekend (e.g. Starhotel Michelangelo) or during slow weeks like Baglioni. Sometimes you can also get a substantial discount by reserving online. In the train station there is a tourist information office which also offers hotel reservations; you can often get good deals through them at the very last minute, but it's not guaranteed.
There are quite a number of one or two star alberghi within a short distance of the station. Young women can find accommodation with certain convents at very low prices, and usually in historic locations. On the other hand, you'll have to forget about any late-night Tuscan craziness.
- Camping Michelangelo has a scenic location on the hillside close to Piazza Michelangelo. Usually it is very crowded. It has "house tents" available, which are tents for two people with bunk beds inside.
- Hostel Florence Experience, Via Maggio, 9 (Close to Ponte Vecchio and Palazzo Pitti), ☎ +39 55 293215, fax: +39 55 293215, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. A hostel in a historic Florentine noble palace built in the 14th century and modified in the 17th century. Rooms are clean and rates include wifi internet access. from €18 (dorm) and €22 (private double room/per person).
- Ciao Hostel Florence, Via Guido Monaco, 34 (Close to the Santa Maria train station), ☎ +39 055 321018, fax: +39 055 321652. Modern hostel with fifteen bedrooms of different size divided into dormitory, double, triple and quadruple with shared bath. Services available are free internet, satellite TV, kitchen, towel, air conditioning and garden. start from €27.
- Hostel Archi Rossi, Via Faenza, 94r (Close to the Santa Maria Novella train station), ☎ +39 55 290804, fax: +39 55 2302601. Never mind the renaissance-kitsch walls. Rooms are clean and rates include breakfast, dinner (except Saturdays) and internet access. The hostel offers a free walking tour daily starting at 10AM. An English speaking guide rotates between the classical and off-the-beaten-path walking tours around the city. from €18 (dorm) and €26 (private room/per person).
- Hostel 7 Santi, Viale Dei Mille, 11 (Campo di Marte area, 10 min from the center by bus), ☎ +39 55 5048452, fax: 39 55 5057085, e-mail: email@example.com. A recently converted 19th century convent. Rooms are clean and quiet. Dorms from €18.
Bed and Breakfast
- B&B Duomo View Florence, Piazza San Giovanni, 6, ☎ +39 055 288290, fax: +39 055 288290. Large choice of double bedrooms. Services are in common and some of the guestrooms boast a fantastic view of the Duomo. Internet connection and breakfast also available. From €50.
- B&B Giglio Bianco, Via Romana 28 (historic centre, close to Pitti Palace), ☎ +39 055 225873, fax: +39 055 7349599. This B&B has 2 double bedrooms with bathroom en suite and a flat-screen 42" TV. The bed and breakfast is known for its breakfasts and dinners, which are prepared by Chef Vary. Free Wi-Fi, espresso coffee maker, spring water and tea available 24h. The owners, Vary and Edo, speak fluent English because they often travel and work in the United States, but also speak Spanish, French and of course Italian. from €95.
- B&B Tourist House Battistero, Via dei Cerretani, 1, ☎ +39 333 8379256, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. A lovely B&B in the centre, with the Duomo just 30 m away. Single Room from €50-110.
- Bed & Breakfast Il Bargello, Via de'Pandolfini 33 (In the historical centre), ☎ +39 055 215330, e-mail: email@example.com. Double rooms with private bath from €70-120.
- Donatello B&B Florence, Via dei della Robbia 52, ☎ +39 055 2479943, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. A lovely B&B in the centre. €45-100.
- Giulia Residence, Via Porte Nuove 19, ☎ +39 55 3216646, e-mail: email@example.com. Double rooms from €60 in low season.
- Piazza del Duomo Florence, Via dell'Oriuolo 49, ☎ +39 055 285018, fax: +39 055 285018, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. A small B&B, rooms with private bathroom and shower, A/C, LCD TV, free Wi-Fi. €45-100.
- Relais Villa Antea, Via Puccinotti 46, ☎ +39 055 484106, fax: +39 055 484539, e-mail: email@example.com. Check-in: 2PM, check-out: 12 noon. Historical residence in an old palazzo with friendly staff. Rooms are spacious. €80-160.
- Bed and Breakfast Florence Stadium, Via Campo d'Arrigo, 15/A, ☎ +39 055 212617, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. New Bed and Breakfast in Campo di Marte in Florence, spacious rooms and breakfast included, near the Stadium and Mandela Forum €50-160.
- Arizona Hotel, Via Luigi Carlo Farini 2, ☎ +39 055 245321, fax: +39 055 2346130, e-mail: email@example.com. Check-in: 12 noon, check-out: 11AM. This 3-star hotel is in a renovated villa from the 18th century. From €69 for a double in low season.
- Convitto della Calza, Piazza Della Calza 6, ☎ +39 055 222 287. The Convitto della Calza is a 16th century cloister that has been converted into a hotel, with frescoed rooms and a modern conference centre. Rooms from €60.
- Florence Hotel Desirèe, Via Fiume, 20, ☎ +39 055 2382382, fax: +39 055 291439, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Family-run hotel with 18 rooms, near the railway station. €50-90.
- Hotel Byron - Florence, Via della Scala, 49, ☎ +39 055 280852, fax: +39 055 213273. Three-star hotel with parking. The hotel offers accommodation for students who need extra beds and for families. €60-300.
- Hotel Caravaggio, Via Nazionale, 5 (800 m from the main train station), ☎ +39 055 496 310, fax: +39 055 480852. Doubles starting from €100 with free Wi-Fi.
- Hotel Casci, Via Cavour 13 (500 m from the main train station), ☎ +39 055 211 686. This small hotel is in a 15th-century palace and has some original fresco ceilings. This was the house of the famous composer Gioacchino Rossini during the 19th century. Doubles starting from €60.
- Hotel Dali, Via dell'Oriuolo 17, ☎ +39 055 2340706. Some rooms open onto a quiet and picturesque inner courtyard. Other rooms offer a view of the Duomo. Owners Marco and Samanta are always ready with good restaurant recommendations and speak excellent English. €40-80.
- Hotel Derby, Via Nazionale 35, ☎ +39 055 2193308, fax: +39 055 285839. Small family-run hotel on the 5th floor of a 6-floor building. All the rooms contain private facilities. Doubles starting from €60.
- Hotel Fiorita, Via Fiume, 20, ☎ +39 055 283189, fax: +39 055 2728153. +39 055 2654376. (Toll free number within Italy ☎ 800 280722). Elegant building and surroundings in the centre of Florence. Rooms have air conditioning, a minibar, direct telephone line, satellite TV and a safety deposit box. Some rooms also have modem sockets. Singles starting from €65.
- Hotel Florence Masaccio, Via Masaccio, 228 (In the residential Campo di Marte area.), ☎ +39 055 578153, fax: +39 055 578153, e-mail: email@example.com. A cozy hotel housed in a villa built in the early years of the 20th century. 9 rooms, bar and a restaurant that specializes in Tuscan dishes. €34-70.
- Hotel Giglio, Via Cavour, 85, ☎ +39 055 2381752, fax: +39 055 461163, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Double rooms from €65.
- Hotel Kursaal & Ausonia, Via Nazionale, 24, ☎ +39 055 496 547, fax: +39 055 462 6615. A small boutique hotel that offers traditional-styled rooms and family-run hospitality in the historical centre, midway between the Duomo and the central train station. Double rooms starting from €50.
- Hotel Lorena Florence, Via Faenza 1, ☎ +39 055 282785, fax: +39 055 288300. Two-star hotel located in the historic centre, with single, double, triple and quadruple rooms, some with shared bathroom. The breakfast is optional. From €25 for a single with shared facilities to €75 for a quadruple with private bath..
- Hotel Montreal (Hotel 2 Stars Superior), Via della Scala, 43, ☎ +39 055 2382331, fax: +39 055 287491, e-mail: email@example.com. Double room from €50 to €180.
- Hotel Palazzuolo, Via Palazzuolo, 71 (In the historic centre, very close to the main train station.), ☎ +39 055 214611, fax: +39 055.212101, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Double room from €40-90.
- Hotel Romagna Florence, Via Panzani, 4, ☎ +39 055 211005, fax: +39 055 2396105. Cosy two-star hotel near the Santa Maria Novella train station. 22 bedrooms with private bath, internet connection and satellite TV. Double rooms: €89 with breakfast included.
- Hotel Delle Tele, Via Panzani, 10, ☎ +39 055 238 2419, fax: +39 055 290 797. In the old town centre of Florence, between Santa Maria Novella railway station and the Cathedral. Rooms from €55.
- Calzaiuoli Hotel Florence, via Calzaiuoli 6, ☎ +39 055 212 456, fax: +39 055 268310, e-mail: email@example.com. €99-230 (double).
- Florence Hotel Pitti Palace al Ponte Vecchio, Via Borgo San Jacopo, 3 (7 m from Ponte Vecchio, in the Oltrarno district, and in front of the Corridoio Vasariano), ☎ +39 055 2398711, fax: +39 055 2398867, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Double and twin €90, triple €100.
- Galileo Hotel, Via Nazionale, 22/a, ☎ +39 055 496645, fax: +39 055 496447. An elegant 19th-century building furnished with style. Single rooms from €80, doubles €120, superiors €150..
- Grand Hotel Adriatico, Via Maso Finiguerra 9 (200 metres from the Santa Maria Novella railway station), ☎ +39 055 27931, fax: +39 055 289661, e-mail: email@example.com. Check-in: 14.00, check-out: 12.00. Modern 4-star hotel in the historical centre. €80-310.
- Hotel Basilea Florence, Via Guelfa 41, ☎ +39 055 214587, fax: +39 055 268350. This 3-star hotel offers 38 bedrooms, single, double, twin, triple and 2 large suites, all with private bath, television and internet connection. €85 for a double, and €65 for a single.
- Hotel Boston Florence, Via Guelfa, 68, ☎ +39 055 496747, fax: +39 055 470934. 3-star hotel with 16 bedrooms divided into singles and doubles, some with private en-suites, others with shared bathroom. Starting at €50 for a single without private bath, and €135 for a double.
- Hotel Crocini, Corso Italia 28 (In the centre), ☎ +39 055 212905, fax: +39 055 210171. Average prices: twin (without private bathroom) €40, triple (without private bathroom) €50, single (with private bathroom) €40, twin (with private bathroom) €50, triple (with private bathroom) €60.
- Hotel La Gioconda, Via Panzani 2 (Near Santa Maria Novella), ☎ +39 055 211023, fax: +39 055 213136. 3-star hotel. Doubles from €85.
- Hotel Il Guelfo Bianco, Via Cavour 29 (In the heart of the city), ☎ +39 055 288330, fax: +39 055 295203. Single €105, double €130, apartments €270.
- Hotel Malaspina, Piazza Indipendenza, 24, ☎ +39 055 489869, fax: +39 055 474809. Charming late 19th-century residence, enriched with modern comforts. Single €90, double €110.
- Hotel Marignolle, Via di San Quirichino a Marignolle 16, ☎ +39 055 2286910, fax: +39 055 2047396. The relais is surrounded by the typical scenery of the Florentine hills, with cypresses and cane-apple trees, broom bushes and pine trees, along with scents of lavender, rosemary, time and catmint. A pool with a large solarium, deck chairs and sunning beds, is at guests’ disposal from May to October. Double rooms from €165.
- Hotel Mario's, Via Faenza 89 (Near Santa Maria Novella), ☎ +39 055 216801, fax: +39 055 212039. Single €67, double €82.
- Hotel Mia Cara, Via Faenza, 90 (red), ☎ +39 055 216053, fax: +39 055 2302727. Small hotel a short walk from Santa Maria Novella. Friendly English-speaking staff. Continental breakfast included. Single from €35, double from €50, triple from €75, quadruple from €80.
- Hotel Morandi alla crocetta, Via Laura, 50 (5 minutes walk form the Duomo), ☎ +39 055-2344747, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Housed in a Dominican 16th-century convent, this hotel has a comfortable atmosphere. It offers rooms with TV, air conditioning, free Wi-Fi, etc. On-site garage parking is available. 90 - 160 Euro for a double room.
- Hotel Privilege, Lungarno della Zecca Vecchia, 26, ☎ +39 055-2478220, e-mail: email@example.com. 3-star hotel on the bank of the Arno river (the "Lungarni"). It features single, double, triple and "Family" rooms. Breakfast buffet, hotel bar and garage available.
- Hotel La Residenza, Via Tornabuoni, 8, ☎ +39 055 2340650, fax: +39 055 240863. High-quality facilities, roof garden with a charming view. Single from €78, double from €110, triple from €145.
- Hotel Rivoli, Via della Scala 33 (In the historical center), ☎ +39 055 27861, fax: +39 055 294041, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Check-in: 14.00, check-out: 12.00. Hotel Rivoli, which was a Franciscan convent dating back to the 14th century, is now an excellent 4-star hotel. €90-350.
- Hotel De Rose Palace, Via Solferino, 5, ☎ +39 055 239 6818, fax: +39 055 268 249. 4-star hotel housed in a traditional Florentine mansion. Starting from €100 for a double room.
- Hotel Savonarola Florence, Viale Giacomo Matteotti, 27, ☎ +39 055 587824, fax: +39 055 587824. 3-star hotel located near the city centre, with one single and 15 twin, double, triple and quadruple rooms. All with private bath, Wi-Fi connection, telephone and breakfast included. Double and twin €80, triple €112.
- Hotel La Selva, Via di Barberino, 221 (In the Tuscan hills), ☎ +39 055 8876824, fax: +39 055 8876806. A 3-star hotel that opted to incorporate the principles of bio-architecture during its remodelling. Average prices - single €40, double €55.
- Kraft Hotel Florence, Via Solferino, 2, ☎ +39 055 284273, fax: +39 055 2398267, e-mail: email@example.com. 4-star hotel located near the centre with swimming-pool, restaurant and fifth-floor terrace with bar. It is possible to have dinner on terrace in warm weather. All rooms have private bath, satellite and pay-per-view TV, Wi-Fi connection, telephone and breakfast included. Double and twin €80-150.
- Novotel Firenze Nord Aeroporto, Via Tevere 23, Osmannoro, ☎ +39 055 53821, e-mail: H1798-RE@accor.com. Very convenient hotel for visitors arriving by air or by car. Free shuttle to the city center. Through the Accor website, you can get a family room (2 adults and 2 children) for €82 (as of August 2011).
- Orto de' Medici, Via San Gallo 30 (Centro storico), ☎ +39 055-483427, fax: +39 055-461276, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Check-in: 14.00, check-out: 11.00. 3-star hotel with wide choice of rooms: Romantic Junior Suite, Deluxe room with view on the garden, Superior Room with private balcony and view, Classic and Family rooms. The name comes from the historical garden ("orto" in Italian), where Lorenzo de' Medici used to train young sculptors, including Michelangelo. Calm atmosphere, breakfast served on a patio, Terrace Music Bar from April to October. from 90.00 to 210.00 €.
- Villa il Mosaico Florence, Via Monticelli, 9-15, ☎ +39 055 7135481, fax: +39 055 71 30 898. Historic and elegant villa 20 minutes from the historic centre. Ten self-catering apartments with kitchen, living room, bathroom, internet connection and TV. Private parking and 100 square metre terrace with solarium. Suite deluxe €169.
- Albergo Firenze, P.za Donati, 4 (Via del Corso) (Just off of the Via del Corso), ☎ +39 055 268301, fax: +39 055 212370, e-mail: email@example.com. 2-star hotel. Double room from €100.
- Florence Hotel Select Executive, Via G. Galliano 13/a, ☎ +39 055 330342, fax: +39 055 351506. 4-star hotel near the historic centre. Double rooms from €100.
- Florence Hotel Unicorno, via dei Fossi, 27 (Near Santa Maria Novella), ☎ +39 055 287313, fax: +39 055 268332. Small 3-star hotel that was renovated in 2011. Double rooms from €80.
- Grand Hotel Cavour, Via del Proconsolo, 3, ☎ +39 055 266271, fax: +39 055 218955. Occupies the medieval 13th-century residence of the noble Strozzi-Ridolfi families - powerful Florentine families whose history is intertwined with that of the legendary Medici dynasty as well as the Republic of Florence itself. €150-300.
- Hotel Laurus, Via dei Cerretani 54/r., ☎ +39 055 2381752, fax: +39 055 268308, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. A historic 4-star hotel, close to the Cathedral and the train station SMN. Suite rooms with view from €120.
- Hotel Mirage, Via Francesco Baracca, 231 (interno 18) (less than 500 m from the Florence airport), ☎ +39 055 352011, fax: +39 055 374096. An elegant, comfortable 4-star hotel. Single from €110, doubles from €140, triples from €160, apartments from €300 per week..
- Hotel Monna Lisa Florence, Borgo Pinti, 27. A hotel in a restored 14th-century Florentine noble palace. Gym facilities, sun terrace and meeting rooms. €200-550.
- The J and J Historic House Hotel Florence, Via di Mezzo, 20, ☎ +39 055 26312, fax: +39 055 240282. 4-star hotel with double, twin, junior suite, suite, and double rooms for single use. The twin and double rooms are also available as classic and deluxe. All come with en-suite services. Breakfast is included. Single €195, double €225.
- NH Porta Rossa, Via Porta Rossa,19, ☎ +39 055 2710911. Gorgeous hotel built in the 12th century. From €150.
- Palazzo Magnani Feroni, Borgo San Frediano, 5, ☎ +39 055 23 99 544, fax: +39 055 26 08 908. Located in a 16th-century building that belonged to Marquis Feroni. It has twelve comfortable suites with classic furniture and original frescoes. From €300.
- Residence La Repubblica Florence, Piazza della Repubblica, 4, ☎ +39 055 214496, fax: +39 055 214496. 21 self-catering apartments for a maximum of six people, all with kitchenette, private bath, internet connection, satellite TV and cooking facilities. One-person apartment: €160; three/two bedroom apartment: €170.
- Villa Poggio ai Merli, Via di Giogoli 5, ☎ +39 055 250257, fax: +39 055 250718. A historic Florence residence located between Florence and the Tuscan countryside. Completely renovated in 2003. Suite rooms from €230.
- Villa la Vedetta Relais & Chateau, Viale Michelangiolo 78, ☎ +39 055 681631, fax: +39 055 6582544. 5-star luxury hotel features a view of Florence's skyline. Rooms from €299.
Since there are a large number of tourists around, the center of Florence is brimming with webcafés and telephone call centers. Most evenings there are long lines for access to the phone-booths.
You can also buy a pre-paid card which will give you a steep discount on international calls by dialing a special number.
Wireless LAN access is becoming popular. Even when offered for free, you will need to provide your name and contact details to the provider of the service to obtain an access code. This is because of Italian anti-terror laws. Anonymous access is not possible.
Florence is generally safe, but take precautions against the opportunistic thieves common to major tourist attractions: pickpockets and purse snatchers. Savvy thieves congregate in crowds, particularly around Santa Maria Novella train station. If you have a bag with a classy, noiseless zipper, it will be opened. Also exercise caution on buses: pickpockets can be active on crowded ones and, as everywhere else, they preferably target tourists. Occasionally, some types of beggars can be insistent and distracting while at the same time another thief quietly steals your wallet or phone. Again, this is nothing new to major tourist spots.
Beware of Stendhal syndrome, also known as hyperkulturemia, namely, dizziness caused by being overwhelmed by Florence's fantastic art. Yes, it's a real syndrome, named after 19th-century French author Stendhal, who suffered from it during his stay in Florence. If you get overwhelmed, rest your eyes and legs, get some food (remember gelato), and save the rest of Florence for tomorrow.
- Florence is a great starting point and base for a tour of Tuscany. Attractive day trips include Pisa, Lucca, San Gimignano, Arezzo, Fiesole, Lucignano, Siena, and of course the wine zone of Chianti. Greve in Chianti is the market town of the Chianti zone and it is in the hills surrounding Greve that you can rent a B&B room or a small apartment on a working vineyard for less than a hotel in Florence. The SITA Pullman buses take you to Greve and Panzano in about an hour. From then on you see few cars and many cypress and olive trees.
- The SITA bus station is just west of the train station in Florence. This is where to go to catch a bus to Siena, San Gimignano, and so on. If you're at the roundabout, facing the train station, go 90 degrees left and stay on the left until just past the fork. You will see the entrance to the SITA garage on your right.
- Fiesole is in the hills above Florence, only a short bus ride away from the centre. It offers a beautiful view of the sunset, and a small museum located on ancient Roman and Etruscan ruins of a temple and an amphitheater.
- World War II Florence American Cemetery and Memorial (12 km (7.5 miles) south of Florence on the west side of Via Cassia. The Rome-Milan highway passes near the cemetery. 20 min bus ride from the Sita Station, just ask agent (get a return ticket)). Open daily except for 25 December and 1 January; 9AM-5PM. The cemetery is the final resting place for 4,402 American military dead lost during after the capture of Rome and the battle for the Apennines. A monument is inscribed with the names of 1,409 Americans whose remains were never found or identified. The atrium of the chapel contains marble maps of World War II Italy campaign. Free to enter.
- Biking options outside of the city include the Chianti area, where you can fully enjoy the hills and the elegance of the landscape surrounding you, which has been taken care of endlessly through centuries. Strong scents can be enjoyed in Spring. The warm temperatures and usually stable weather in the good seasons can make the ride even more enjoyable. If you feel more energetic, ascents to Vallombrosa from Pontassieve through Tosi can be very enjoyable. You start from the Arno river plain and you end up in a thick, shady, fresh forest. In all cases, avoid the hottest hours in Summer and be aware of the traffic, which can be heavy and not cyclist-savvy, until you get in secondary or less populated roads.
- UNESCO World Heritage Listed rural building complexes (Medici Villas and Gardens) are scattered around Florence.