The Caucasus: hostile politics, stunning scenery and ancient churches. A view over the oft-closed border from the Khor Virap Monastery in Armenia to Turkey's Mount Ararat, itself a symbol of Armenia

The Caucasus mountain range runs between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea, largely following Russia's southernmost border. It is considered part of the natural boundary between Europe and Asia. Three states - Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia - have traditionally lain on the range's southern slopes. They collectively border north-eastern Turkey and north-western Iran and are geographically considered part of Western Asia. Culturally, however, they consider themselves European and have much in common with the neighbouring Russian North Caucasus.

Countries and regions

Caucasus regions
This region's reputation as a resort area on the Black Sea is being rebuilt after the 2008 war.
An ancient, millennia-old civilization amidst stark mountain landscapes and remote canyons. Home to amazing world heritage sites, forgotten monasteries and boasting a wonderfully laid back and friendly culture.
The richest state of the Caucasus, its capital awash in oil wealth and international business, wonderful old palaces of the Shirvan Shahs in Baku and Sheki, Zoroastrian fire temples, barren landscapesoil and salt spreading across the surface, and world-class hikes in the lush heavily forested, mountainous north and south.
The lush green heart of the Caucasus, with fabulous cuisine and culture, incredibly diverse landscapes, and an exceptional wealth of ancient churches, cathedrals, monasteries, and cave cities
Ethnic Armenian upland slice of Azerbaijan that broke loose in 1994.
South Ossetia
Involved in the same war as Abkhazia, this mountainous area has yet to reach a similar level of stability. It remains remote and accessible, only to the determined, via Russia.
Russia's North Caucasus
Largely inaccessible from the independent Southern Caucasus states, this beautiful region of extraordinary mountains and river gorges, delicious food, stunning stone mountaintop villages, legendary hospitality, and a seemingly endless cycle of violence is covered in its own article.

The predominantly unrecognised republics of Abkhazia, South Ossetia, and Nagorno-Karabakh are covered in articles separate from those of the countries to which they once belonged. While the legitimacy of these governments is disputed, they do have de facto control and are thus distinct separate entities. Wikivoyage takes no position on the legitimacy of their claims to be sovereign states.


Take in the mineral waters in a Tbilisi bath house

Other destinations

Sheki's forested backdrop, Azerbaijan


Ancient petroglyphs in Gobustan, Azerbaijan


This region has seen the ebb and flow of empires throughout the ages. The three traditional states south of the Caucasus, Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia, have been united and independent twice in their history. Tigranes the Great held a large kingdom here in the first century BC; and for a few months in 1918, the Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic briefly saw the three countries united. Between these two periods, Romans, Byzantines, Mongols, Persians, Ottomans, Imperial Russians and Soviets have all held sway in different parts and at different times.

Early modern history

Nineteenth century imperial Russian expansion laid the foundations for the region's current look. While for centuries the Ottoman empire held parts of Armenia and Georgia and the Persians nominally controlled Azerbaijan, neither fully subjegated or integrated the native peoples.

Soviet times

The Soviet successors to the Russian Empire briefly lost control of the region in 1918, but by the 1920s the three states had been folded into the USSR. Soviet rule attempted to galvanize a united Soviet identity but the different groups held on to their customs, religions and loyalties.

As the Soviet Union disintegrated in the early 1990s, fierce nationalism took the region. The cosmopolitan mixes of peoples that the Soviets cultivated proved immiscible as people migrated, often forced, to their ethnic homelands. The arbitrary boundaries of the Soviet republics - and hence those of the new independent states - ensured lasting hostility within and between the three states.

Post-Soviet confusion

Gagra's esplanade, Abkhazia

In 1994, the ethnically Armenian Nagorno-Karabakh region of Azerbaijan waged war against the Azeris. With Armenian backing, a new republic was created. However, no established nation - not even Armenia - officially recognizes it. Diplomatic arguments over the region continue to mar relations between Armenia and Azerbaijan.

In 2008, Georgian efforts to bring to heal its autonomous regions of Abkhazia and South Ossetia back-fired when they declared full independence. The ensuing war was brief and one-sided as Russian troops backed the separatists and overran much of Georgia proper. A ceasefire was agreed and Russia withdrew its troops to the boundaries of the new republics, which it diplomatically recognizes.

Hostilities have largely cooled, though South Ossetia remains internally unstable, and the three states are left trying to find a place in the new world. Georgia has looked west, though its hopes of joining NATO were not realized soon enough to prevent the Russian invasion. Armenia remains loyal to Russia, which supports it economically and in its spats with Azerbaijan. Azerbaijan, perhaps because of its cultural and linguistic ties to Turkey and other Turkic speaking central Asian countries, has more political links in those directions.


Where religions meet: St. Nicholas Church (top) and the Tbilisi Mosque (bottom), Tbilisi

This is one of the most ethnically diverse regions of the world.

While travelling here expect to meet friendly locals, eat food like none other on earth and witness breathtaking mountain vistas. The arcane, expensive and bureaucratic visa procedures are becoming gradually less of a burden, as are crooked police. However, sufficient blights remain to make this far from the easiest region to navigate.

Armenia and Georgia are suffering from economic recession due to an economic blockade of Armenia by Azerbaijan and Turkey and of Georgia by Russia. Oil-rich Azerbaijan is essentially an old-fashioned dictatorship where the oil wealth is still not flowing to the entire population but to a small elite.

The old ways of the Soviet Union are never far away when dealing with any kind of official person including immigration officers and police. And be very, very careful before you enter an area which is controlled by the Russian backed local militia or Russian border troops of the separatist regions in Georgia and by the Armenian backed local militia of the separatist region in Azerbaijan.


The Caucasus region is one of the most complex linguistic regions in the world, containing more than 60 languages from five distinct language families. While this is great for cultural diversity, it can be confusing to travellers.

If you're only going to take one phrasebook for the whole region, make it Russian. The former Soviet states were united through its use as a common second language. English is becoming more prevalent in the main cities but its penetration is insufficient to be relied upon.

Independence has meant massive migration, often forced, and ethno-linguistic segregation has become much more pronounced. There is therefore, much less inter-ethnic interaction and so much less incentive for young people to learn a second language. National languages are becoming ever more important to travellers but Russian remains very useful.

The national languages are Abkhaz, Armenian, Azerbaijani, Georgian and Ossetian.

Knowledge of Turkish is also useful in Azerbaijan because Azeri Turkish and Anatolian Turkish are closely enough related to be mutually intelligible.

Get in

By air

The three capitals each have airports that are well connected to east and west Europe and the Middle East. There are even a few flights to Ürümqi in China. The disputed territories are not served by passenger flights.

The countries' secondary airports tend to serve mainly Russia, with also a few connections to Turkey, Ukraine and Iran.




By train

Bold Soviet architecture in the form of Yerevan railway station

Politics have severed many of the rail routes into the region.

Taking the train between Russia and Abkhazia is generally unproblematic but onward travel into Georgia proper is not generally possible. Trains from Russia to Azerbaijan are frequent enough but the border is closed to westerners.

Crossing by rail between Azerbaijan and Iran at Astara is possible.

There are no passenger rail connections with Turkey still open.

Get around

Border Crossing

Border crossing is generally difficult throughout the Caucasus. The Russian-Georgian border (Verkhniy Lars) near Kazbegi can now (since 2011) be crossed by any nationality, given the visas are in order. The Russia-Azerbaijan border are only open for citizens of CIS countries. There is also a border crossing from Russia to Abkazia, however it is not allowed to transit through Abkhazia from Russia to Georgia or vice versa. For non-CIS citizens, the only way of entering/exiting Russia through the Caucasus is on the Georgian Military Highway between Vladikavkaz und Tbilisi. Aside from flying, there are ferries between Sochi, Russia & Trabzon, Turkey (near Georgia) and Baku, Azerbaijan & Aktau, Kazakhstan (near Russia).

The Armenian-Azerbaijani border is closed because both countries remain at war. The Armenian-Turkish border is also closed due to tensions between both countries. To travel overland between Armenia and Azerbaijan and Armenia and Turkey, it is necessary to go through either Georgia or Iran.

Georgia's borders with Turkey, Armenia, and Azerbaijan are all open, making the country somewhat of a regional transit hub for the Caucasus. Since 2003's Rose Revolution in Georgia, bribes are absolutely not necessary for foreign travellers entering Georgia. However this cannot be guaranteed for Armenia and Azerbaijan.

Entering Azerbaijan with a used Armenian visa or vice versa could likely cause problems (suspicion) with border guards, but shouldn't prohibit entry. Nevertheless, it is recommended to visit Azerbaijan first and then Armenia, to avoid potential problems and a refusal of entry to Azerbaijan. However, you will not be allowed entry to Azerbaijan with a Nagorno-Karabakh visa (you can ask to get the NKR visa on a separate piece of paper, though), otherwise it would result in a permanent entry ban to Azerbaijan.

Naxchivan (Azerbaijan) can be entered from Turkey and Iran.


Overnight trains travel between Tbilisi-Yerevan and Tbilisi-Baku. When traveling by rail, you have the option of rooms containing 4 beds (coupe, pronounced koo-peh') or 2 beds (SV, pronounced es veh). SV is a bit more expensive, but more comfortable and generally considered more safe from pickpockets.

There are direct bus services between Tbilisi-Yerevan and Tbilisi-Baku. If taking the air-conditioned bus between Tbilisi-Baku, bring a jacket! Buses also operate across the Russian-Georgian border, but are not an option for non-CIS country nationals.

If you would prefer a more social mode of transport, minivans (marshrutkas) operate across all open borders and throughout the entire Caucasus region.

There are direct flights between Tbilisi to Baku, Tbilisi to Yerevan. Expect no trouble at the airports--they are small and efficient.

Car rental is more expensive in the Caucasus than in the West, but car hire with a driver is quite affordable. For international travel, however, it will be necessary to pay for your driver's lodging unless he was already planning to make the trip.


Lake Sevan, Armenia


Ski in two very beautiful ski resorts of Georgia. Bakuriani and Gudauri.

Relaxing on the Georgian beaches on the black sea in Batumi, Kobuleti, Ureki, Gonia etc.


The Georgian "Khinkali" and "Khachapuri"!


The drinks of note in the Caucasus are Georgian wines, Armenian cognac (brandy), and Russian vodkas.

Local beers throughout the Caucasus are excellent value.

Especially tasty Georgian wines:

Stay safe

The ruined city of Agdam, Nagorno-Karabakh. War is less of a problem than it used to be.

The Caucasus is a tinderbox of age-old rivalries, some frozen, some very hot indeed. Much of the Russian North Caucasus is an active war zone, and the rest suffers from extremely high crime rates. Fragile ceasefires are more or less holding in Georgia's disputed regions of South Ossetia and Abkhazia (which are both quite dangerous), as well as the border between Azerbaijan and Armenia, still officially at war over Nagorno-Karabakh.

However safety is not a serious issue to worry in Armenia and Azerbaijan if you are not too close to the border between the two countries. It is safe to visit even Nagorno-Karabakh from the Armenian side. Georgia is trickier with regards to personal safety, with higher violent crime and car-jacking rates in some of the bigger cities, and occasional kidnappings in some of the wilder off the beaten path locales.

This article is issued from Wikivoyage - version of the Tuesday, February 02, 2016. The text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike but additional terms may apply for the media files.