|Centuries:||18th century – 19th century – 20th century|
|Decades:||1850s 1860s 1870s – 1880s – 1890s 1900s 1910s|
|Years:||1877 1878 1879 – 1880 – 1881 1882 1883|
Year 1880 (MDCCCLXXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar).
Events of 1880
January - March
- February 2 - The first electric streetlight is installed in Wabash, Indiana.
April - June
- April 18 - William Ewart Gladstone defeats Benjamin Disraeli in the United Kingdom general election to become Prime Minister for the second time.
- May 13 - In Menlo Park, New Jersey, Thomas Edison performs the first test of his electric railway.
- June 29 - France annexes Tahiti.
July - September
- July 1 - First performance of O Canada, the song that would become the national anthem of Canada.
- July 16 - Dr. Emily Howard Stowe is the first woman licensed to practise medicine in Canada.
- July 22 - The British recognize Abdur Rahman Khan as Emir of Afghanistan.
- August 30 - First complete railroad trip made from Houston to New Orleans on the Texas and New Orleans Railroad.
- September 5 - First successful test of an electric Tram in the world takes place in St. Petersburg, Russia.
- September 16 - "Black Bart" ( Charles Bolles) robs the stage from Roseburg, Oregon to Yreka, California. This took place in Jackson County, Oregon. It is the farthest north Bart is known to have robbed.
October - December
- October - Terrible winter storm in North America, the " Blizzard of 1880".
- October 6 - The University of Southern California opens its doors to 53 students and 10 faculty.
- October 15 - Mexican soldiers kill Victorio, one of the greatest Apache military strategists.
- October 28 - The first stone was laid for the Clarkson Memorial in Wisbech.
- November - James Garfield defeats Winfield S. Hancock in the U.S. presidential election.
- November 4 - The first cash register was patented by James and John Ritty of Dayton, Ohio.
- November 11 - Australian bushranger and bank robber Ned Kelly is hanged in Melbourne.
- November 22 - Vaudeville actress Lillian Russell makes her debut at Tony Pastor's Theatre in New York City.
- December 20 - Action at Bronkhorstspruit, the first major action of the First Boer War.
- December 30 - The Transvaal becomes a republic and Paul Kruger becomes its first president.
- Discovery of piezoelectricity by Pierre Curie and Jacques Curie.
- Completion of Cologne cathedral.
- Founding of Science by Thomas Edison.
- Cocaine isolated.
- Capuchin catacombs of Palermo are officially closed (there will be some burials afterwards).
- Department of Scientific Temperance Instruction of the Women's Christian Temperance Union established.
- Aceh War (1873-1904)
- War of the Pacific (1879-1884)
|Ab urbe condita||2633|
|British Regnal year||43 Vict. 1 – 44 Vict. 1|
|Chinese calendar|| 己卯年十一月二十日
— to —庚辰年十二月初一日
|- Vikram Samvat||1936–1937|
|- Shaka Samvat||1802–1803|
|- Kali Yuga||4981–4982|
|- Ǹrí Ìgbò||880–881|
|Japanese calendar|| Meiji 13
|Juche calendar||N/A (before 1912)|
|Julian calendar||Gregorian minus 12 days|
|Minguo calendar||32 before ROC
|Thai solar calendar||2423|
January - June
- January 6 - Tom Mix, American actor (d. 1940)
- January 17 - Mack Sennett, Canadian director and producer (d. 1960)
- January 26 - Douglas MacArthur, American general (d. 1964)
- January 28 - Herbert Strudwick, English cricketer (d. 1970)
- January 29 - W.C. Fields, American actor (d. 1946)
- February 5 - Gabriel Voisin, French aviation pioneer (d. 1973)
- February 8 - Franz Marc, German artist (d. 1916)
- February 12
- February 21 - Waldemar Bonsels, German writer (d. 1952)
- February 22 - Frigyes Riesz, Hungarian mathematician (d. 1956)
- March 1 - Giles Lytton Strachey, British writer and biographer (d. 1932)
- March 4 - Channing Pollock (writer), American playwright and critic (d. 1946)
- March 10 - Bronco Billy Anderson, American actor (d. 1971)
- March 11 - Harry H. Laughlin, American eugenicist (d. 1943)
- March 22 - Kuniaki Koiso, Prime Minister of Japan (d. 1950)
- March 23 - Heikki Ritavuori, Finnish Minister of Interior (d. 1922)
- March 30 - Sean O'Casey, Irish writer (d. 1964)
- April 13 - Charles Christie, Canadian-born film studio owner (d. 1955)
- April 15 - Max Wertheimer, Father of Gestalt Theory (d. 1943)
- April 18 - Sam Crawford, Baseball Hall of Famer (d. 1968)
- May 6 - Ernst Ludwig Kirchner, German painter (d. 1938)
- May 14 - B.C. Forbes, Scottish-born financial publisher (d. 1954)
- May 21 - Tudor Arghezi, Romanian writer (d. 1967)
- May 25
- May 29 - Oswald Spengler, German philosopher (d. 1936)
- June 3 - Didier Bonvitesse, Belgian painter and sculptor (d. 1945)
- June 6 - W. T. Cosgrave, Irish politician (d. 1965)
- June 17 - Carl Van Vechten, American writer and photographer (d. 1964)
- June 21 - Josiah Stamp, 1st Baron Stamp, British civil servant, industrialist and economist (d. 1941)
- June 27 - Helen Keller, American spokeswoman for the deaf and blind (d. 1968)
July - December
- July 5 - Jan Kubelík, Czech violinist (d. 1940)
- July 21 - Milan Rastislav Štefánik, Slovak General, politician, and astronomer (d. 1919).
- July 24
- August 6 - Hans Moser, Austrian actor (d. 1964)
- August 8 - Earle Page, eleventh Prime Minister of Australia (d. 1961)
- August 10 - Robert L. Thornton, American businessman, philanthropist, and mayor of Dallas, Texas (d. 1964)
- August 22 - George Herriman, American cartoonist (d. 1944)
- August 26 - Guillaume Apollinaire, French poet (d. 1918)
- August 29 - Marie-Louise Meilleur, Canadian Woman, notable for living 117 years (d. 1998)
- August 30 - Nikolai Astrup, Norwegian painter (d.1928)
- August 31 - Queen Wilhelmina of the Netherlands (d. 1962)
- September 12 - H. L. Mencken, American journalist (d. 1956)
- September 14
- September 16 - Alfred Noyes, English poet (d. 1958)
- September 22 - Christabel Pankhurst, English suffragette (d. 1958)
- September 23 - John Boyd Orr, Scottish physician and biologist, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize (d. 1971)
- September 24 - Sarah Knauss, American woman, notable for living 119 years (d. 1999)
- October 23 - Una O'Connor, Irish actress (d. 1959)
- November 1
- November 2 - John Foulds, British classical music composer (d. 1939)
- November 5 - Richard Oswald, Austrian film director (d. 1963)
- November 6 - Robert Musil, Austrian novelist (d. 1942)
- November 10 - Jacob Epstein, American-born sculptor (d. 1959)
- November 25 - Elsie J. Oxenham, British children's novelist (d. 1960)
- December 1 - Joseph Trumpeldor, Russian Zionist (d. 1920)
- December 4 - Garfield Wood, American motorboat racer (d. 1971)
- December 10 - Jessie Aspinall, Australian doctor, first female junior medical resident at the Royal Prince Alfred Hospital (d. 1953)
- December 11 - Frank Tarrant, Australian cricketer (d. 1951)
- December 24 - Johnny Gruelle, American cartoonist and children's book author (d. 1938)
- December 31 - George Marshall, United States Secretary of State, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize (d. 1959)
- date unknown
January - June
- January 4
- January 8 - Joshua A. Norton, self-anointed Emperor Norton I of the United States of America (b. 1811)
- January 14 - Frederick VIII, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein (b. 1829)
- January 12 - Ida, Countess von Hahn-Hahn, author (b. 1805)
- January 20 - Captain Moonlite, Australian bushranger (b. 1842) (hanged)
- January 31 - Adolphe Granier de Cassagnac, French politician (b. 1806)
- April 23 - Raden Saleh, Indonesian painter (b. 1807)
- March 14 - Pagan Min, King of Ava (b. 1811)
- March 31 - Henryk Wieniawski, Polish composer (b. 1835)
- May 4 - Edward Clark, Confederate Governor of Texas (b. 1815)
- May 8 - Gustave Flaubert, French novelist (b. 1821)
- May 20 - Károly Alexy, Hungarian sculptor (b. 1816)
- June 8 - Maria Alexandrovna (Marie of Hesse), Empress Consort of Czar Alexander II of Russia (b. 1824)
- June 28 - Texas Jack Omohundro, American frontier scout, actor, and cowboy (b. 1846)
July - December
- July 7 - Lydia Maria Child, American novelist and abolitionist (b. 1802)
- July 17 - Tomasz Chołodecki, Polish political activist (b. 1813)
- July 21 - Hiram Walden, American politician (b. 1800)
- August 15 - Adelaide Neilson, English actress (b. 1847)
- August 17 - Ole Bull, Norwegian violinist (b. 1810)
- August 24 - Chief Ouray, Native American leader (b. c. 1833)
- October - Victorio, Apache chief
- October 4 - Jacques Offenbach, German-born composer (b. 1819)
- November 11 - Ned Kelly, Australian bush ranger (hanged) (b. c. 1855)
- November 28 - Aires de Ornelas e Vasconcelos, ( Portuguese) Archbishop of Goa (b. 1837)
- December 22 - George Eliot, English writer (b. 1819)