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File:Cardinal vowel tongue position-front.svg



Description Vectorized version of Image:Cardinal vowel tongue position-front.png. For image details, see below
Date 11 February 2008
Source Own work, data: see below
Author Badseed
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  • Tongue positions of Daniel Jones' cardinal front vowels (adapted from Jones 1972: 32).
  • Cardinal vowels #1 and #4 [i, a] were adapted by Jones from x-ray photographs of his mouth.
  • Cardinal vowels #2 and #3 [e, ɛ] are approximate.
  • The tongue positions were determined by placing a thin metal chain on Jones' tongue while saying the vowels and then photographing them.
  • The four large dots indicate the highest point of tongue for each vowel.


  • Jones, Daniel. (1972). An outline of English phonetics (9th ed.). Cambridge: W. Heffer & Sons Ltd.

See also


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