How to Write a Geographical Report

Four Parts:Beginning Your ResearchOrganizing Your MaterialWriting Your ReportDoing the Final Review

For a school geography report, you are basically writing a paper about a certain area. You’ll need to cover land features like mountains and rivers, as well as the weather, animals, plant life, soil, natural resources, population, and how the area is divided by political or state lines. It's important to learn how to research and organize this information in order to produce the best geographical report possible.

Part 1
Beginning Your Research

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    Choose a topic. Maybe your assignment is to choose a country to report on. You can pick one you want to visit or just one that interests you. If you don’t know what to pick, research a few countries until you find one you like.
    • Choose a country that you find interesting. Maybe you could choose a country your ancestors came from or that you have some personal connection to. Let’s say you pick Scotland.
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    Research your country. You can find books on your chosen country at the library, but you can also find solid geographical information online. For instance, the CIA’s World Factbook is a reliable source that has geographical information on every country in the world.[1]
    • Don’t forget to use your library’s online resources. These will give you access to online databases that have high quality articles. The best way to identify good sources is to look at who is producing them, according to Rider University.[2]
    • Is the author an expert in the field? Is the book from a good publisher? Is the journal reviewed by peers? These aspects will help you decide on the best source.
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    Take notes on your country. Make sure to note down where you find important information so you can find it again. You’ll need the author, title, publisher, city of publication, date of publication, and the medium. Also include a URL or the DOI (the digital object identifier) when it is provided.

Part 2
Organizing Your Material

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    Organize your notes by topic.Gather your notes, then use computer software like Microsoft Word to move things around until you have like topics together, such as all the information on topographical features together, all the information on population and political lines together, and so on.
    • If you don’t want to use software, trying writing information on notecards so that you can move it around and arrange it in the best order possible.
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    Write an introduction for your paper. The introduction should provide a short overview of the paper, introducing the topic to your reader. Basically, you tell the reader what you are going to talk about in the paper—the geography of Scotland.
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    Next, outline what you want to say in each paragraph. As you’ve already organized your notes by topic, use that organization to place the relevant information into paragraphs. Remember to keep one main idea per paragraph.
    • So, if you’re writing on three main ideas that are each extremely detailed, maybe you need to divide them further into smaller paragraphs. Your main section could be geographical features of Scotland, which you could further divide into paragraphs such as mountains, water features, and habitats.
    • The American University in Cairo suggests writing a sentence per paragraph so you have an idea of what you want to say.[3] How you organize it is up to you, as long as it goes in a fairly logical order. It might be best to start from the more general and move to the more specific in each paragraph.
    • Finally, make a few notes on what you want to include in your conclusion.

Part 3
Writing Your Report

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    Use the introduction you already wrote. Make sure you transition smoothly into your first paragraph. That is, add a sentence at the end of your introduction that leads into your first topic.
    • For instance, you could write, “Scotland is a fascinating country, and part of its fascination lies in its rich natural resources.”
    • This concludes the introduction and clues your reader in to the fact that you’re moving on to natural resources (or whatever your first body paragraph is).
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    Move through your outline. Create paragraphs from your research, adding details as you go. Make sure to transition smoothly from one paragraph to the next.
    • When writing a paragraph, treat it like a mini report. That is, treat the first sentence as a sort of introduction and the last one as an a conclusion.
    • Purdue’s Online Writing Lab suggests the best way to write a paragraph is to have only one major idea per paragraph, making each one cohesive.[4]
    • Also, make sure to develop your idea through the paragraph, adding new thoughts and ideas as you go.
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    Write a conclusion. The conclusion brings together everything you’ve talked about in a short summary. You’re basically just reemphasizing for the reader everything you just said and tying up any loose ends.
    • The American University in Cairo recommends ending on something that’s memorable, so you leave your readers with something that sticks with them.[5]

Part 4
Doing the Final Review

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    Make sure your report is clear and concise. Writing a geographical report isn’t that much different from any type of information report. Your main objective is to provide the information in a clear and concise manner.
    • Make sure your sentences are not too long, and that you back up what you have to say with research. It is important to keep the report objective.
    • Remember, a geographic report is not an argumentative essay. You’re not trying to convince your reader of your point of view, you’re trying to educated them on a specific topic, so stick to the facts.
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    Proofread your report. Read through your paper to check for typos. Look for grammatical mistakes, spelling errors, and awkward sentences. Try reading it out loud. This will slow your reading down, making you more aware of what’s actually there.
    • Also try to have someone else read it. Another person will catch mistakes you might have missed.


  • Geography, according to Encyclopedia Britannica, is the study of environments and landscapes on the planet, including how they influence one another. It’s also the study of what makes up the land and natural resources of a country. Some definitions of geography also include how people interact with the environment.[6]
  • Essentially, a geography report is a paper about a particular area. You provide detailed information on the area, giving the reader a sense of what that area is like. Be sure to outline your paper before you begin and to proofread it when you are finished.

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